Substitution Charts

I’m a wiz at making ingredient substitutions but some people aren’t quite as fearless in the kitchen as I am. I’ve listed some of the most common ones I use below. Please don’t hesitate to contact me if you have a question about substituting ingredients. If I haven’t done it, I’m willing to try it. 🙂

Egg Substitutes in Baking
(note: these also work well as gluten replacements)

1 egg = 1 Tbs chia seeds + 3 Tbs liquid (water, broth, juice)
1 egg = 1 tsp ground chia seed + 3 Tbs liquid
1 egg = 1 Tbs flax seeds + 3 Tbs liquid
1 egg = 1 tsp ground flax seed + 3 Tbs liquid

Cane Sugar Replacements in Baking

1 cup brown sugar = 1 cup date sugar – 1 cup flour
1 cup brown sugar = 1 cup coconut sugar
1 cup brown sugar = 3/4 cup dark agave nectar – 1/4 cup liquid
1 cup light brown sugar = 1/2 cup stevia-erythritol blend + 2 tsp molasses
1 cup dark brown sugar = 1/2 cup stevia-erythritol blend + 1 1/2 Tbs molasses
1 cup granulated sugar = 3/4 cup light agave nectar – 1/4 cup liquid
1 cup granulated sugar = 2/3 cup honey – 1/4 cup liquid
1 cup granulated sugar = 2/3 cup pure maple syrup – 1/4 cup liquid
1 cup granulated sugar = 1 1/3 cup rice syrup – 1/4 cup liquid
1 cup granulated sugar = 1 cup xylitol
1 cup granulated sugar = 1 1/4 cup granulated erythritol
1 cup granulated sugar = 1 1/4 cup granulated allulose
1 cup granulated sugar = 1 teaspoon stevia extract (powder or liquid)
1 cup granulated sugar = 1/2 cup stevia-erythritol blend
1 cup granulated sugar = 1/2 cup allulose + 1/2 tsp stevia extract

Gluten Replacements in Baking
(note: I now use chia or flax seed as a gluten replacement)

Breads and Dough
1/2 tsp xanthan gum per each cup of gluten free flour
1 tsp ground chia seeds per each cup of gluten free flour
1 tsp psyllium husk powder per each cup of gluten free flour
1 tsp guar gum per each cup of gluten free flour
1 tsp agar agar powder per each cup of gluten free flour
1 tsp powdered gelatin per each cup of gluten free flour

Cakes, Cookies & Muffins
1/4 tsp xanthan gum per each cup of gluten free flour
1/2 tsp ground chia seeds per each cup of gluten free flour
1/2 tsp psyllium husk powder per each cup of gluten free flour
1/2 tsp guar gum per each cup of gluten free flour
1/2 tsp agar agar powder per each cup of gluten free flour
1/2 tsp powdered gelatin per each cup of gluten free flour

Flour Exchanges

Breads and Dough
1 cup wheat flour = 3/4 cup gluten free flour + 1/4 cup starch (arrowroot powder, corn starch, potato starch, tapioca starch) + appropriate amount of gluten replacement

Cakes, Cookies & Muffins
1 cup wheat flour = 1 cup gluten free flour + appropriate amount of gluten replacement

Thickening Agents

1 tsp agar agar powder per each cup of boiling liquid (let bloom for 10 minutes first)
1 1/2 to 3 tsp powdered gelatin per each cup of liquid depending on preferred consistency (allow to bloom in cold liquid for 3-5 minutes first). Do not boil.
1 Tbs agar agar flakes per each cup of boiling liquid (let bloom for 10 minutes first)
2 1/2 tsp arrowroot + 1 Tbs cold liquid per each cup of liquid (note: don’t use arrowroot with dairy products)
1 Tbs corn starch + 1 Tbs cold liquid per each cup of simmering liquid (note: don’t use cornstarch with acidic sauces)
1 Tbs tapioca starch + 1 Tbs cold liquid per each cup of liquid

450 Responses to Substitution Charts

  1. Tiffany says:

    I have a bread recipe that calls for psyllium husks which I havent been able to find locally. It calls for 1/3 cup whole husks. Can I substitute xanthan gum? How much would I use?

  2. Laura says:

    Thank you for this, it is super helpful! I have tried using a flax egg in bread and muffins several times. They always come out very gummy, which is not what I need. I am baking for two friends that can’t have eggs and I am not finding any kind of success. Can you give me any suggestions or tips? Thanks!

    • I haven’t tried flax seed as an egg substitute but I’ve had a lot of success with chia seeds. Soaking them in water/liquid for 5-10 minutes is key. It plumps up the seeds so they release their gel quality. I usually use them whole but they can be ground as well. Decreasing any other liquid in the recipe by a few tablespoons may help with the texture. Good luck!

    • Janet says:

      I realize this is an old post, but it’s worth noting that aquafaba (the bean liquid drained from a can of garbanzo, or other, beans, makes a decent egg substitute in many recipes. Check out the aquafaba facebook page for ideas and recipes

  3. I generally use xanthan gum in my gluten free baking. My question is – if I use psyllium husk powder, do I still need xanthan gum or do they work together?

  4. Catgross says:

    I have a pudding recipe that calls for 2 tablespoons Corn starch. I cannot have any starch in my diet. So, what can I use to replace starch with in a recipe? Would Whey protein or egg protein work? Or how about a sunflower lecithin? You did mention Agar, but I cannot use products made from sea weed, BUT i can use gelatin. So, how would I replace agar for gelatin? Anyway, I really trying to figure out what would replace starch all starches are out for me.

    • In cold/chilled things, gelatin would work well. I’d start with one packet (2 1/2 teaspoons or 0.25 ounces of gelatin powder). I don’t use whey or egg protein so am not sure how well they’d work. Whole eggs are used in custard so should work in pudding, too, just be careful not to scramble them in the cooking process. Chia seeds would also work. I make chia pudding with 1/4 cup chia seeds, 1 cup almond milk and a packet of stevia. Whisk it well & let set for at least an hour. Pectin is also an option if the recipe has fruit in it. Since I don’t use sugar I use instant pectin in jams and syrups. For thickening savory things like soup or gravy, cooked and pureed vegetables work great and add a lot of flavor.

    • Lisa says:

      I aan not have cornstarch also I use arrowroot instead and it works great!

    • Evelyn jones says:

      how much zanthan gum as a substitute for 3/4cup of cornstarch

      • What type of recipe are you making the substitution in? A little bit of xanthan gum goes a long way so a straight substitution can’t be made. Usually 1/2 to 1 teaspoon of xanthan gum is used per cup of flour in baked goods.

    • Betty McKinney says:


  5. Janetta Smith says:

    I have a recipe that calls for 7 TBS psyllium husk, I don’t have that & my stomach can’t handle flax seed. What I do have is xanthan gum & glucommannan powder…can I use either of those?

    • Xanthan gum should work. The ratio when substituting xanthan gum for psyllium husk is 1:1 in standard gluten free recipes. 7 tablespoons of xanthan gum may make the recipe too gummy so you’ll have to experiment. I’d start with half that amount. Good luck and happy cooking!

  6. Bev says:

    I have agar agar, but recipe calls for tsp of xanthan gum. Do you know how much agar agar I should use as substitute? I read that one tsp of agar agar thickens a cup of liquid, but haven’t found anything about how much to use per cup of gluten free flour or equivalencies of agar agar to xanthan gum. Would be so great if you can help! Thanks!

    • For gluten free baking use a 2:1 ratio when substituting agar agar powder for xanthan gum. It’s usually recommended you use 1/4 teaspoon xanthan gum per cup of gluten free flour so if substituting agar agar use 1/2 teaspoon per cup of gluten free flour.

  7. Bev says:

    Magical timing on your quick reply, since I need to make an upside down banana and maple syrup cake for an event today. Thank you for your cooking wisdom and your speedy response!

  8. I have a recipe for an avocado lime pie that calls for 1tbsp of psyllium husk, unfortunately I cannot find any and was wondering what would be a good substitute.

    • Chia seeds or flax seeds will work quite well. You can use them whole or measure out a tablespoon and then grind them in a spice grinder. I’d grind them for a smoother texture.

      • joanne says:

        Would chia seeds work in a cake recipe that calls for Fiberhusk (it’s a Swedish recipe and I’m assuming it’s psyllium husk)? It also asks for 1 Tablespoon. Thanks!

      • Yes, chia seeds would work as a replacement. Use the same amount. Psyllium husk is often used in Europe as a gluten replacement. I didn’t like the possible side-effects of it so started using chia seeds, which has similar properties. Now chia seeds are popular so they’re easier to find.

  9. Mrs Davis says:

    I want to make cauliflower crisps can I use agar agar in place of flour and how much.

  10. Hima says:

    Substitute chart for xanthum gum with chai seed gel

  11. Whitney Bray says:

    Hello! I was looking to make a low carb gluten free version of Baumkuchen cake- the recipe calls for 1/2 cup cake flour. Could I take out the flour entirely and just use 1/2 tsp psyllium husk powder?

    If it matters what else is in the batter- this is the whole original recipe:
    4 whole eggs
    1 tbsp vanilla extract
    1/4 cup milk
    3/4 cup sugar (I’ll be using Swerve erythritol sweetener instead)
    3/4 cup brown butter
    1/2 cup cake flour

    Thank you so very much for your time!!

  12. Quianna says:

    Thanks for your info! I’m trying to bake a gluten, egg and dairy free cake for my sons birthday tomorrow and the recipe calls for 2 teas of xanthan gum but I would like to use psyllium husk instead. Per your instructions I should use 4 teas of the physillium but I have read elsewhere that you won’t need very much at all. Can you please advise?

    • If you are using chia seeds or flaxseed meal as an egg replacement, you don’t need psyllium husk powder at all. If not, then I’d half the amount to 2 teaspoons since 4 would be a lot (2 teaspoons of xanthan gum is also a lot and I’m surprised the original recipe uses so much). Good luck!

  13. Linda says:

    I have a recipe that calls for 1 Tablespoon of whole psyllium husk, can i substitute it with the psyllium husk powder

  14. Lisa says:

    Thank you so must for this post! I am new to gluten free baking I am diagnosed with Hashimotos and my doctor told me NO gluten. I can not use xanathan gum so I purchased Organic India Whole Husk Psyllium. I am baking a sorghum and tapioca pie crust and the recipe calls for 2 tsp of xanathan gum. I do not know how much psyllium to use, can I just substitute 1:1 the gum for the psyllium husks?

    • I’ve never used whole psyllium husks only powdered. Powdered you can do a 1:1 exchange. Whole you might want to do a 1:2 ratio. If you’re not powdering them then I recommend soaking them in any liquid used in the recipe for 5-10 minutes like you would whole chia seeds or flax seeds

  15. Lisa says:

    Thank you for your help! When I bake my yeast free bread I make a slurry of flax seed and hot water, 1 T of hot water to 2 T flax seeds.

  16. Beth says:

    I’m making a bread recipe that calls for 1 cup walnut flour, 1 cup oat flour, 2/3 cup buckwheat flour, and 2 tbsp arrowroot. I don’t have arrowroot and am wondering whether it would be better to substitute cornstarch or psyllium husk. (I have both at home.) If psyllium would work, then how much would I use? If cornstarch is better then is it a 1:1 substitution? Thanks so much for your help!

  17. ashta says:

    Hi, this info is great..when i try to bake gluten free especially breads with either sorghum or finger millet or pearl.millet floura or a mix of all, i use flax as as egg replacer, with proportions of.baking soda and powder, however without banana the breads turn out dry and crumbly. And with banana rhe flavor of the fruit is very overpowering. Can u please advise on what can be used to provide structure.and moisture to the bakes except banana? I.also always bake yeast egg and

    thanks much!

    • Crumbly is often a problem for me, too. I find adding a tablespoon or two of coconut flour improves the texture and adding oil, applesauce, nutbutters, or coconut milk keeps it from being too dry. My bread dough often resembles a thick batter more than an actual dough. A friend says they’re dense like cake but they’re edible & pretty good when toasted. Good luck!

  18. Luanne says:

    In your crunchy granola bites, one of the ingredients is Almond flour. However, in the recipe on how to make, you make no mention of adding the flour. I’m assuming I add it the same time I add the other ingredients.


  19. Linda says:

    I would like to substitute pectin for agar agar in a recipe….what would the proportions be?


    • Pectin can a bit tricky; it needs the right amount of acid and sugar to set up. If the recipe has the right proportions of those two substances, then there is a 2:1 substitution ratio of pectin to agar agar powder (not flakes or sheets). Good luck!

  20. el says:

    i am baking gluten and egg free. Should i use your measurement for gluten, in addition to the measurement for the egg? Or would that be too much. I would basically be putting in 2 T of the chia for the eggs, and 4 tsp of psyillium for the gluten. Any thoughts?

  21. christine says:

    hello !
    Im trying to make this bread and I cant find a psyllium husk. Can I just skip that and continue or should I use something else.Thank you so much.

    here is the recp.

    2 and a 1/2 cups of cold water
    1 and a 1/2 cups of pumpkin seeds
    1 cup of quinoa flakes
    1 cup of almonds
    1/2 a cup of sunflower seeds
    1/2 a cup of flaxseeds
    3 heaped tablespoons of psyllium husk powder**
    2 tablespoons of chia seeds
    2 tablespoons of dried mixed herbs (basil, rosemary, thyme, oregano etc are all great)
    salt to taste

  22. Hi..I have a recipe for a smoothie that calls for 1 TBSP of phyllium husk. I don’t have any but do have chia seeds. Can I substitute these instead and how much do I need?

  23. morgan says:

    I have a gluten intolerance and my dad found an almond bread recipe but it has arrow root and flax seed (which you show can be used as an egg substitute) in them. Can we substitute for more eggs and add a little corn meal even though the recipe all ready calls for eggs?

    • Those substitutions should work. Try a more finely ground corn flour or masa harina rather than corn meal since almond meal, even finely ground, creates pretty crumbly bread and corn meal would make that problem worse. Corn starch would be even better and a truer substitute for arrowroot. There are gluten free brands on the market. Remember to decrease liquid in the recipe by 3 tablespoons for every additional egg you add. Good luck & happy baking!

  24. Mary Ellen says:

    I Found a recipe to make your own nondairy creamer with almond milk, but it calls for 3 tsp of arrowroot powder (which I do not have). I have xanthum gum and glucomannan powder – could either of these be used instead and if so, how much?

    • Xanthan gum should work; it’s used to thicken salad dressings. I’d start with a 1/4 tsp and increase by a 1/4 tsp if necessary. It may need to be heated to thicken properly. It’s been years since I used it & even then I didn’t use it regularly.

  25. Kim Wellington says:

    Will ground Psyllium seeds work the same way as Psyllium husk powder?

    • I’m not sure if the seeds alone will form gel like the husks do. You can test it by adding a tsp of ground seeds to a few Tbs of water and letting it sit for 5-10 minutes. If a gel form then they can be used in place of the husks.

  26. Leanne says:

    When substituting ground chia seeds for xanthan gum in a bread recipe do you add the ground chia seeds to the mix dry or do you mix it with boiling water first to get the gel? I am already using ground chia seeds for egg replacement. I cannot have xanthan gum or guar gum.

    • I’ve done it both ways but usually mix it with the dry ingredients. The bread dough, muffin, or cake batter sit long enough during the baking process that the chia or flax seed meal plumbs up without that extra step. When making gluten free tortillas or cookies, though, I find it works better if I gel it first.

  27. Pat says:

    thank you very much! any chart about conversion to the metric system? sometimes it can be very tricky to ‘guess’ what 1 ml of psyllium husk powder could be equal to! at any rate, your chart saved me a lot of work ☺️

  28. joanne says:

    Would I need to reduce the liquid or change anything else in the cake recipe if I use the 1 Tbsp of chia seeds instead of the psyllium husk? I assume that I should measure out 1 Tbsp first, then use my coffee grinder to make it into a powder? Thanks!

    • joanne says:

      Oops this was in response to your reply on 1/6.. I thought this would go under your reply.

    • No other changes necessary. I usually grind the seeds first then measure out what I need, though now I buy preground chia seed meal. The meal wasn’t available when I first started baking with chia seeds but now it’s readily available.

  29. Dominique says:

    Hi! 🙂 I’m making vegan lemon meringue pie and for the lemon filling, it asks for 1/4 tsp agar but I only have xanthum gum. Can I replace the 1/4 tsp agar with 1/4 tsp xanthum gum? I suppose its for thickening the lemon filling. Thanks a mil!

    • The ratio of xanthan gum to agar agar powder is 1:2 so you’d only need an 1/8 tsp of xanthan gum for your recipe. Happy baking!

      • Catharine Dubois says:

        Have a recipe for cheese which calls for 3tsp agar powder and I don’t have any. Can I use arrowroot powder?

      • Agar is more of a gelatin substitute than a starch. Chia seed meal or flaxseed meal would probably be better substitutes if you’re trying to keep it vegan. Try a 1:1 ratio to start, though you may have to add more later to get the consistency you want.

  30. Amy says:

    What can I substitute psyllium husk for. I have a recipe that calls for 3 tbls.

  31. Hi, can I use chia seeds as a substitute for tapioca starch? If so do you know the ratio?

    • In what type of recipe do you want to make substitution? Tapiocia starch and chia seeds have very different chemical properties. You could make the substitution if the tapioca starch is used as a thickener, say in pudding or dressings, but the texture will change a lot, making it more like a gel. I wouldn’t make the substitution in baked goods since starches and fatty acids like chia seeds bring very different qualities to baked goods. Arrowroot, potato starch, or corn starch are better substitutes for tapiocia starch.

  32. bymmila says:

    Hi! If a gluten free cookie recipe requires one tsp of xantham gum how much arrowroot powder should I put in instead of it? I don’t want to use xantham gum and I already have arrowroot powder at home. Thanks so much for your advice!

    • Arrowroot can’t be substituted for xanthan gum. Arrowroot is a starch which doesn’t give gluten free recipes the elasticity that gums or mucilage containing seeds provide. Flaxseed meal, chia seed meal, psyllium husk powder, guar gum, or agar agar powder can be substituted for xanthan gum. If those aren’t available, you can simply leave it out if the recipe altogether.

  33. Chay Adix says:

    Hi, I’ve been reading your site with great interest. I have recently discovered Konjac root or glucomannan powder to be very helpful adding thick cream-like textures to smoothies and thickening in hot stews. It has a 1:1 ratio of carbs to fiber. Since it seizes immediately in any liquid, I use an immersion blender while adding it to cold or hot liquids. I use about 1 to 1.5 tsps to a 12 oz almond milk shake. Also, I would use 1 to 1.5 tbs to a quart of hot stew. If you know the product would you relate how it may be used in baking? Many thanks!

    • Konjac root has been banned in several countries because it can cause serious health problems, specifically blockages in the esophagus and intestines due to its water absorbing properties. Please use it with caution.

      In regards to baking, use it with the same ratios as ground chia seeds, flaxseed meal, or psyllum husk powder. I personally seldom use psyllum husk powder because it can cause the same type of intestinal blockages as Konjac root.

      • Amber says:

        Can I get where you got the information on the konjac root and psyllium husk please? All the information I have found on them are good. I never seen anything about intestinal blockages. Thanks.

      • Amber, I get most of my medical information from medical journal articles & evidence based health sites like Medical News Today, Consumerlab, and Healthline.

  34. Suzanne says:

    I’m very new to all this as I just found out that I am intolerant to yeast, dairy products, eggs, gluten and corn. I have tried to bake different bread recipes and had to through it all in the garbage because of the taste of consistency. I found a gluten, yeast and dairy free recipe and I would like your opinion about a substitute for eggs. I tried different things but I might not be using the right quantity because it doesn’t work. Here is the recipe and let me know what you suggest.

    3 cups of buckwheat of millet flour
    1 1/2 cups distilled water
    2 Tbs non aluminum baking powder
    1/2 tps sea salt
    3 eggs

    • Flaxseed meal or chia seed meal are the best egg substitutes. Xanthan gum and psyllum husk powder are good binders to replace gluten but shouldn’t be used in the quantities needed to be egg substitutes. My ratios are 3 Tbs chia seed or flaxseed meal + 1/4 cup liquid = 1 egg. Let the mixture sit for 5-10 minutes to develop its gel-like qualities before adding to the rest of the ingredients. I’d also replace a 1/4 cup of the buckwheat or millet flour with a starch like tapioca flour or potato starch. I’ve found it helps with consistency. I also don’t recommend using distilled water for drinking, cooking, or baking. Distilled water doesn’t contain the minerals our bodies need to function. It’s good for things that should be sterile like medical equipment and laboratory use but not good for consumption. Filtered water is better.

      • Suzanne says:

        Thank you so much for this information. It seems a bit overwhelming at the beginning especially with all the intolerances. I will definitely try this. If you have suggestions about other bread recipes or muffins recipes that wouldn’t include my intolerances I mentionned, it would greatly be appreciated.
        thank you so much!

    • There are several yeast free bread recipes on this site since I couldn’t have yeast for several years. I particularly liked the oat flour ones. Replacing the eggs with chia or flax should be pretty easy & exchanging vinegar (which some yeast sensitive people also react to) for lime or lemon juice works well. You can search by keywords or browse through the bread category. Good luck & happy baking!

  35. Suzanne says:

    I have Psyllium Seed Husk and Xanthan Gum but I’m not sure of the quantity to use or if it’s better than chia (seed/ground) or flax (seed/ground) to replace eggs in bread.

  36. Linasoya says:

    Hi, What can I replace Arrowroot powder with?
    In SA it is quite expensive for a small amount and cannot afford to buy it.

    • Any other type of starch can be used as an arrowroot replacement: corn starch, tapioca flour/starch, even potato starch. I usually use tapioca flour now that several of my local stores carry it.

      • Linasoya says:

        Thank you so much for your reply :). I can manage to get some Tapioca Flour. How do I work out the measurement for “Arrowroot to Tapioca Flour” when working from a recipe?

    • I use a 1:1 ratio when substituting one starch for another. They all act a little differently from one another but not so much that you can’t make a straight substitution.

  37. Stasi says:

    I want to make this pita bread recipe but can I substitute the physllium husk powder for cornstarch? I don’t have chia or flax. Thanks.

    • Corn starch won’t give the dough the elastic feel of gluten like psyllium, chia, or flax. Xanthan gum, agar agar, guar gum, or powdered gelatin could work though I’ve only tried xanthan gum or add an extra egg & remove 1/4 cup of liquid from the recipe. Good luck!

      • Stasi says:

        Thank you! This is the recipe:
        Wet Ingredients:
        2½ tsp. dry active yeast
        2 c. warm water (approx. 100 degrees)
        2 tsp. maple syrup or agave
        2 Tbsp. vegetable oil (or whatever oil you choose)
        2 Tbsp. psyllium husk powder (I used Secrets of the Pysllium from Trader Joe’s)
        Dry Ingredients:
        1 c. white rice flour
        1 c. superfine brown rice flour
        ½ c. potato starch
        ½ c. arrowroot powder
        3 tsp. xanthan gum
        1 tsp. salt
        Should I add more Xanthum gum?

    • Seems like they’re using psyllium husk powder as an egg replacer in the recipe rather than a gluten replacement since they’re also using xanthan gum. You can leave it out completely and decrease liquid by 1/4 cup or add an egg and again decrease liquid by a 1/4 cup or simply add an extra 2 Tbs of one of the flours or starches.

  38. Michelle says:

    When substituting the ground chia seeds for gluten, are you soaking them first if using ground?

  39. Hello, I’m making vegan popsicles and the recipe calls for 1/2 tbsp of cornstarch, the purpose of which is to help even out the consistency and make the pops a bit gelatinous and smooth. Can I use agar powder to replace the cornstarch? If so, is it an even trade of 1/2 tbsp for 1/2 tbsp? Thanks so much for all of your advice!

  40. Desire says:

    Hi, my recipe for carb free/low carb Turkish Delight calls for 100g of arrow root. What do I use in place of arrow root please, and ratio. Thank you find this all very helpful.

    • Tapioca starch or corn starch are good substitutes for arrowroot. My scale needs a new battery so I’m not sure what the ratio for grams would be but when measuring I use a simple 1:1 ratio. That should work with this recipe as well. Any weight differences are likely negligible.

  41. Tamika says:

    Hi, I am trying to convert a recipe for some biscuits which has no “liquid” per se, only butter, eggs, sugar (which I’m trying to replace), & flour. My question is if I’m wanting to replace raw sugar with maple syrup you say above to leave out liquid… in this case what should I do? Thanks, I’m new to sugar/gluten/dairy free cooking

  42. Carol Leach says:

    Hi, I am making a Gluten Free chocolate cake which requires 3/4 teaspoon guar gum or 3/4 teaspoon xanthan gum. I’m thinking of using a substitute with fresh ground flaxseeds so how much do I need to use and does it have to be soaked first? Any help would be appreciated.

  43. Emanuela Cioffi says:

    Can I use glucose syrup in place of xantham gum in a pie base recipe

    • I don’t recommend trying it. Xanthan gum acts like gluten, giving the dough some elasticity. I’ve never used it but I can’t imagine glucose syrup or any other sugar imparting that quality. Flaxseed meal, chia seed meal, or psyllium husk powder can be substituted for xanthan gum at a 1:1 ratio.

      • Emanuela Cioffi says:

        Thanks…I’m concerned that Xantham Gum may not be suitable for a severe Coeliac

    • Xanthan gum is made from corn sugar by bacteria and is gluten free but it does cause GI upset in some people. I stopped using it because I prefer the whole food options of flaxseed or chia seed meal which have better nutrient profiles and are less expensive.

  44. Charlie says:

    For 2 Tsp. of xathum gum how many sheets of gelation would I use?

    • I haven’t tried replacing xanthan gum with gelatin, though I’ve considered using it in dairy free ice creams. Most sites recommend a 2:1 ratio of gelatin to xanthan gum. 3 sheets of leaf gelatin equals 1 tsp xanthan gum. For your recipe, you’d need 12 sheets of gelatin.

  45. Lyndah says:

    Thank-you SO much! I just purchased ATK’s Gluten Free Cookbook and everything in there uses the psyllium husk powder instead of xanthan gum. I was afraid I would have to scrap the book! This information gives me a lot of options for gluten free bread in my bread machine. You’re the best!

  46. Garyn says:

    I want to make a blueberry streusel muffin. It calls for 1/4tsp xanthan gum I don’t have that what would be a good substitute for it. I wad thinking glucomannan. I’m trying that trim healthy momma way of eating. All help would be much appreciated.

  47. Ines says:

    I want to use arrowroot in place of agar powder in a gummy worm recipe could you please tell me if this would work and how much to put.

  48. Jennifer says:

    Can I use arrowroot to replace agar powder in a vegen whipped topping recipe?

    • Is the topping cooked or raw? If cooked then arrowroot can be used. 1 tsp arrowroot to 2 tsp cold liquid to create a slurry will give a gravy-like consistency to 2 cups hot liquid.

      If it’s an uncooked topping then xanthan gum, guar gum, or instant pectin would be better choices.

  49. Cari says:

    Hi, I have a recipe for naan flatbread that is 1/2 c almond flour, 1/2 c tapioca, 1 c coconut milk. Do you know how I could replace the tapioca w/o a starch that will still provide the desired texture? Psyllium, flax, something new I’ve never heard of?! Thanks, love your site!!

    • The texture will be different, but I use either flaxseed meal or chia seed meal and almond flour in one of my flatbread recipes. Lately I’ve been experimenting with chickpea/garbanzo bean flour, too. It has more carbs than flax or chia, but less than tapioca or arrowroot, and it has a nice bread-like texture.

  50. Angela says:

    Hello, does xanthan gum work well when baking with almond and coconut flours for items like scones cakes and muffins?

  51. McDonna says:

    Can you please offer a standard ratio for substituting psyllium powder for psyllium husk? I bought the powder only to find that many of the recipes I want to make call for the husk. Not sure that the ratio should be 1:1 since the powder would conceivably have a more potent effect than the husk.

    Thanks for your help! Can’t find anything that talks about a standardized ratio of the two!

  52. roberta says:

    i can’t use jello ( animal ing.) need a sub. for lemon jello to use in a pineapple up side down cheese cake. please help before nov1, 2015

    • Pectin like what’s used in making jelly and jam is a great gelatin substitute and is easy to find in stores. It comes in three different formulas: regular, low sugar, and instant. Directions are on the package.

  53. Kathy Silber says:

    Can xanthan gum be substituted for konjac flour? If so, is it an even substitution?

  54. ev-ita says:

    What a very convenient website you have !
    I was wondering if you could give me some advice on the following:
    I’m trying to make a limoncello/ricotta cheesecake, but wonder if I could substitute the 1 1/2 tablespoons of agar-agar powder (not to be found in Brussels) with psyllium husk powder – and what quantity ? I also have flax and chia seeds.
    It seems that the agar-agar powder is used as some kind of gelatin, to stiffen up the cheese mixture.
    Hope to hear from you !


  55. Brenda Tapia says:

    Thank you! This is so helpful. Do you know which thickener is the best for kids? Let say 8 months?

    • It depends on what you are thickening. I’m a big fan of real foods, especially for children, so fruit or vegetable purees (bananas, apple sauce, cooked carrots, mashed potatoes, etc), full fat unsweetened Greek yogurt, pureed cottage cheese, mashed hard boiled eggs, unsweetened nut butters, and lentil puree are my first choices. Things like wheat, rice, or oat baby cereal would be second because they’re mostly carbs with little nutritional value.

  56. Jen Worden says:

    I am making a broccoli chedsar soup that is on the Atkins plan. Can i use gelatin for a thickening agent. (the receipe calls for cornstarch) and if so what is the ratio to use for thickening and should i whisk it. In cold water first?
    Thanks for any help you. Can give me

    • Gelatin only works in chilled dishes. You can try flaxseed meal, chia seed meal, or coconut flour as low carb thickeners. Start with 1 tsp per cup of liquid until you reach the desired consistency. I also use puréed vegetables as thickeners for soups. Once the soup is nearly done, remove 2-3 cups of veggies & broth, purée it & return to the stock pot, simmer until the soup is done.

  57. Carla Green says:

    Thank you witch!! 🙂

  58. Dan Yul says:

    Can I substitute gelatin or psyllium husk powder for cornstarch when thickening sauces like teriyaki?

    • Psyllium husk powder, yes. Gelatin, no unless you plan to serve it chilled. Other options include xanthan gum, coconut flour, flaxseed or chia seed meal. When using psyllium husk powder, start with a very small amount, 1/4 tsp, stir sauce for five minutes to give it time to work. Add more psyllium husk powder as needed, until it reaches the right consistency.

  59. Tresia Lindsay says:

    So if my recipe calls for 2/3 cups ground flaxseed and I want to use eggs how many eggs is that? Also it calls for 2/3 cups of maple syrup and I want to use molasses?

    • One egg equals about 1 tablespoon flaxseed meal + 1/4 cup water. To substitute eggs for flaxseed meal, you’ll have to subtract liquid from the recipe as well. In this case, I’d use three eggs & remove 3/4 cups of liquid from the recipe.

      Molasses has a much stronger flavor than maple syrup so only a tablespoon or two is needed. You may have to add 1/4 to 1/2 cup of another sweetener to take the place of the maple syrup.

  60. Wendy says:

    Firstly, thanks for taking the time to diligently and patiently answering us! I’m new to trying to substitute things in my search for a lower gluten and lower carb life. This site is so helpful!

    I’m trying to find a lower carb answer to the arrowroot in a baking mix and I think based on the answers I’ve read that flax might be ideal. If that is the case, what is your thoughts on a ratio? Thanks in advance! Here is the mix:

    Almond-Coconut Flour Blend


    2 (16 oz) packages Trader Joe’s Almond Meal
    1 (16 oz) package Bob’s Red Mill Coconut Flour or Coconut Secret Raw Coconut Flour*
    1 (20 oz) package Bob’s Red Mill Arrowroot Starch


    2 cups (8 oz) almond meal
    1 cup (4 oz) coconut flour
    1 cup (4.5 oz) arrowroot starch

    • Yes, golden flaxseed meal or chia seed meal can be used instead of arrowroot or tapioca starch. In the recipe above I would add 1/2 cup almond meal & use 1/2 cup flaxseed meal. Coconut flour & flaxseed meal both suck up liquids so using less reduces that problem and gives you a little better texture (less dense). You’ll probably have to experiment to find the ratios that work best for your purposes. Ratios of flours/meals for breads are different from the ratios you’d use for cakes. There are a couple of older recipes on here for gluten free flour mixes but now I don’t bother. There are too many variables based on the type of foods I want to bake.

    • Wendy, do you have a low carb bred recipe you coud share with me that uses this mix? I’m a low carb newbie!

  61. D Joy says:

    I want to make vegan marshmallows to make rice crispie treats for my boyfriends son who recently went vegan. The marshmallow recipe calls for agar agar but I have tapioca starch and wondered if that would be a good replacement?

  62. I am on a low carb diet and would like to make this bread, but can’t figure out how to replace the brown rice flour. Coconut flour maybe? But then what is the quantity? It doesn’t have to be vegan, just low carb. Appreciate any ideas you may have!

    • I’d use more almond flour in place of the rice flour or half almond flour and half flaxseed meal. Coconut flour absorbs moisture like a sponge so can’t be substituted for equal ratios of other flours.

  63. sharon says:

    This is very helpful – thank you. Question regarding the use of unflavored gelatin in panna cotta. I’m trying to add a bit of fiber to balance the fat and sugar. Can I use psyllium or some other form of gelling agent that offers protein and fiber with the same results as gelatin?

  64. Kathy says:

    Hi, thank you so much for this conversion chart! I was wondering if you knew the ratio to convert arrowroot to konjac powder?

    • Kathy, I personally don’t use konjac powder because I don’t like the possible gastrointestinal side-effects; however, the ratio of corn starch or arrowroot to konjac powder is 10:1. So 1 tsp of konjac powder equals 10 tsps arrowroot powder.

  65. Christina says:

    Your site is so helpful! If I’m reading this correctly– “1/4 tsp xanthan gum per each cup of gluten free flour” so if my recipe calls for 4 cups of regular flour and I substitute with 4 cups of rice flour then I should add 1 tsp xanthum gum?

    • Christina, that’s correct. I found when using rice flour, though, it helps to include 1/4 to 1/2 cup starch (corn starch, tapioca starch, or arrowroot powder). In a recipe calling for 4 cups flour, I’d use 3 1/2 cups rice flour, 1/2 cup starch (I prefer tapioca), and 1 tsp xanthan gum. Rice flour on its own makes very crumbly baked goods (but nice and crispy waffles and breading on fried foods).

      • Karen says:

        Hi, somewhat similar to Christina, i am using 3 1/2 cups flour (1 cup teff, 1.5 cup sorghum, 1 cup white rice flour) and 1/2 cup tapioca starch. The recipe also calls for 1/3 cup ground chia seeds plus 1/3 cup whole psyllium husks. i understand that I would use about 1 tsp xanthan gum but I still use the chia, correct??? and thank you so much for answering our questions!!!!!

      • With the chia seeds and psyllium husks in the recipe you shouldn’t need xanthum gum at all, especially if you let the dough rest or soak the seeds in the liquid required in the recipe to release their gel-like properties.

  66. Sally says:

    I’m making gummy bear candy can I use guar gum in place of gelatin? And say I use 1/2 cup juice how much guar should be used

  67. Tori Lauren says:


    I have a lot of weird allergies, and I can’t have chia or flax seeds, nor can I have psyllium husk powder, but I found a recipe using it. Could I substitute this gelatin I have instead?

  68. Elaine Oxford says:

    I am making Chicken Thai Bowl in a slow cooker and need a substitute for Xanthan any suggestions please,
    Thank You, Elaine.

  69. Peter says:

    I have a recipe that calls for “ground psyllium husk powder” and another that calls for “ground psyllium seed husks”. I have psyllium husks on hand, but not powder. Can I use them as-is? Should I alter the amount? Or should I try to powder them?

  70. Peter says:

    I have seen recipes that call for “ground psyllium seed husks” or “psyllium husk powder”. When using psyllium husks, should the quantity be adjusted? Or is there an easy way to powder or grind the husks?

  71. Karleen says:

    Hi . I follow a keto/low carb high fat diet. I’ve found a recipe for a paleo bread that I’d like to try. However, it has 1/2 cup of arrowroot flour in it which I believe is very high in carbs. What could I use as a substitute for the arrowroot flour? I assume that cornstarch and potato starch would be just as high in carbs….. Could it be replaced with xanthum gum and if so, how much?

  72. Marie says:

    Ive used chia seeds to substitute xanthan gum in this recipe and its still crumbly.. should I increase the chia? Add corn starch? Or physillium seed husks? I’m open to adding any of those. what are your thoughts and how much? Thanks a bunch!!
    Gluten-free Honey Oat Bread

    3 1/3 cups oat flour (or 4 cups of gluten-free oats plus more for the top)
    2 scant tablespoons yeast
    1 1/2 cups warm water
    1/4 cup olive oil
    1/4 cup + 2 tablespoons honey
    1/2 cup corn starch (or tapioca flour)
    1/2 cup rice flour (white or sweet white rice flour. Brown rice would probably work too but I haven’t tried that yet)
    2 teaspoons xanthan gum
    1 teaspoon salt
    1/4 teaspoon cinnamon
    4 eggs

  73. cindy says:

    What can I reply psyllium powder with don’t have chia or flax seeds

  74. Christina Baber says:

    When using chia or flax seeds do you mix with liquid before adding to the bread and or cake mix?

    Thank you this chart is great help

  75. Christina Baber says:

    Have you used green banana flour instead of a mix of different flours? If not vould I send you couple of pounds to try?

  76. Just love your site and this very useful list. Thank you.

  77. paula says:

    Is xantham gum a susbstitute for arrow root starch, ordo they do different things?

    • They have different properties. Xanthum gum gives dough more of an elastic feel that you can’t get with arrowroot powder. You can get similar results to xanthum gum with agar agar powder, guar gum, gelatin, psyllium husk powder, flaxseed meal, & chia seed meal.

      • sweetsgeek says:

        Hi. Can I do that substitution in a recipe for sugar free maple syrup? It calls for xantham gum but I have arrowroot. Not worried about gluten content.

      • It’s worth trying. To be an effective thickener, arrowroot powder should be used similar to corn starch. For every 1 cup of simmering liquid, add a slurry of 1 tsp arrowroot powder and 1 Tbs cold water at the end of the cooking cycle. Whisk until smooth and it starts to thicken. Arrowroot powder doesn’t require as much cooking as corn starch and too much heat can break down the fibers reducing thickening power.


    Greetings and Thank you for this conversion chart list. Now, I would like to know if I can substitute agar agar (it’s quite expensive) for arrowroot and what ratio would it be. Or if there’s a better substitute vegan for it.
    Thanks for your help.

    • Arrowroot doesn’t have similar qualities to agar agar. Gelatin or xanthum gum would be the best substitutions. Xanthum gum has a 1/2:1 ratio with agar agar powder. Gelatin has a 1:1 ratio with agar agar powder.

  79. Adam says:


    Thanks for your substitution charts – they are very useful. There is a recipe I’d like to make but unfortunately it calls for 60 grams of vital wheat gluten. Obviously I’d like to use a gluten free alternative but I’d also like it to be high in protein.

    Since vital wheat gluten is wheat flour with the starch removed, would I be able to use protein powder (like a pea/rice protein blend) with psyllium, chia seed or agar agar powder added? If so, what would be the ratio of protein powder to psyllium/agar/chia?

    If you don’t think the protein powder and psyllium/chia/agar blend would work, would a whole grain flour (millet, teff, quinoa, sorghum) mixed with psyllium, chia or agar agar work as a substitute for pure gluten?

    Thanks for your time.


    • Vital wheat gluten adds a very elastic quality to dough. You can attempt to use agar agar powder and protein powder as a substitute since I don’t think chia seed meal, flax seed meal, or psyllium husk powder has the right qualities, though zanthum gum might. For every cup of protein powder used add 1/2 tsp agar agar powder. I haven’t tried this so I’m not sure what the results will be. Good luck!

  80. Kerry Westenbarger says:

    How much chis seeds would I use instead of half a package of instant pectin when making refrigerator jam?

  81. Misty says:

    Thank you for this amazing chart! So many questions answered…bit I still have one. Can you tell me how I might use oat fiber in a GF flour mix for breads, cakes etc? I’m trying to stay low carb. The ratio to other flours like coconut or almond? Thanks again!!

    • You can replace up to a quarter of total flour in a recipe with oat fiber. I’ve never used it so I’m not sure how much it’ll change the texture of the recipe. It might make gluten free breads more crumbly. Happy baking!

  82. K knauer says:

    Hi! I’m making a vegan cherry mousse. It calls for 3/4 tsp agar powder. I only have xanthan gum. Will it work? What is the ratio? Thank you!

  83. Marcia Durling says:

    Can arrowroot powder be substituted with xanthan gum and if do what are the equivalent measurements?

    • Arrowroot powder can’t be used in place of xanthum gum because they have very different chemical properties. Flaxseed, chia seed, and psyllium husk powder/meal have properties that are more similar to gums than starches like arrowroot or tapioca.

  84. MomofThree says:

    Hello. Thank you so much for these conversions. They are so helpful. I have tapioca flour but my recipe calls for 1 tablespoon of arrowroot powder. It doesn’t look like a one-to-one conversion on your chart. Can you help?

    • Arrowroot powder and tapioca starch can be interchangeable depending on the application. When used as a thickening agent arrowroot is slightly more powerful than tapioca starch, hence the ratio is 2 1/2 tsp arrowroot powder = 1 Tbs tapioca starch. Arrowroot powder is not an appropriate thickener for dairy containing sauces and can only tolerate short periods of heat before breaking down. Tapioca starch isn’t appropriate for acid containing sauces, but is more stable with heat.

      In gluten free baked goods where starches are used to help reduce crumbling, arrowroot and tapioca can be interchanged at a 1:1 ratio.

  85. Rebecca R Alvarez says:

    Came across a recipe that calls for flour and cornstarch. I’d rather not use cornstarch, so can I use 1/4 tsp of xanthan gum per cup flour?

    • Starches aren’t used as substitutes for gluten in recipes. They improve texture to make the end product more like wheat flour baked goods. More appropriate substitutions for corn starch are tapioca starch or arrowroot powder. If you’re trying to reduce the carbohydrates in the recipe, simply increase the amount of your base flour to equal the amount of corn starch removed from the recipe.

  86. Mary Smith says:

    I believe I read through the majority of questions and comments and did not find the answer to my question. I have a recipe where it uses a half a cup of arrowroot powder if I wanted to make it lower carb I was told I could use xanthan gum but I can’t find what ratio to use it. Could you please tell me what the proper ratio is in a heated sauce

    • For use as a thickener, use 1/4 tsp xanthan gum per 1 cup of liquid. It tends to clump when added to liquids so it’s best to sprinkle the xanthan gum over the liquid while whisking constantly. It’ll continue to thicken as it cooks into the sauce.

  87. Amanda says:

    I am trying to make a vegetarian mirror glaze for a cake, but can not find agar. Can I substitute for Pectin? The recipe calls for 4 tsp of agar powder.

    • Pectin should work, though high methoxyl amidated pectin requires acid, like citric acid in fruit, to set and low methoxyl amidated pectin requires calcium so make sure you get the right type to go along with the ingredients in the recipe. The ratio of agar agar powder to pectin is 1:2. For your recipe you’ll need 8 tsp of pectin.

  88. SaraCS says:

    Hi, I am trying to make sugar-free jam (blackberries or strawberries). I do not want to use honey, juices or other kinds of sugar, so I’m wondering if the pectine alone would do a good job for both the jellying process and to preserve the jam.

    Also, could xanthan powder be used instead of pectine? Or chia seeds? If so, what the convertion ration?

    Any suggestions would be appreciated, thank you! 🙂

    • Instant pectin works well for no sugar added jams and jellies. It doesn’t act as a preservative like sugar or sugar alcohols so unsweetened jam or jelly of any kind should be kept in the freezer unless enough acid (lemon juice or citric acid) is added to prevent spoilage.

      Chia seed jam can be made with one pound fruit and 2 Tbs chia seeds. You may need more chia seeds if the berries are more liquidly. Most chia seed jams are not cooked & should be made in small batches or frozen.

      Xanthan gum can be used instead of pectin with 1 pound fruit to 1/2 tsp xanthan gum. It also would be a freezer jam.

      • SaraCS says:

        Thank you so much!
        I’ll definitely give these options a try… experiments in the kitchen, here we come! 🙂

      • SaraCS says:

        Sorry, just a quick question if you can.

        Any idea of how much lemon juice needs adding to have a preservative effect? Would you say 1/2 cup lemon juice per kg of fruit?

        Thanks again!

    • How much lemon juice is required depends on the pH/acidity of your berries. Blackberries would require less, about 1 Tbs per kg, and strawberries would require more, 2-3 Tbs per kg. The ideal pH for preserves is between 2.6-3.2.

  89. Cassie says:

    I am looking to cook some Asian savory dishes and was wondering if it’s possible to swap the cornstarch or rice flour for psyllium husk powder?
    Thanks 🙂

    • Substituting psyllium husk powder for corn starch or rice flour depends greatly on application. Psyllium husk powder can be used to thicken sauces, but I wouldn’t recommend it in coatings or batters. Psyllium husk powder is similar to xanthan gum as far as thickening power and is used interchangeably in Europe. 1/4 to 1/2 tsp per cup of liquid is the best ratio to use as a thickener. Start with 1/4 tsp and increase if necessary after whisking it well into your sauce.

      Coconut flour or almond flour can be used in coatings or batters. I’ve also used chickpea flour, though it contains a little more carbohydrates.

      • The recipe I have would probably be considered a batter. It is for a zucchini pancake type, cooked in a pan, does not bake in the oven, I was I thinking of using Xanthan gum, instead of cornstarch for low-carb, you suggest coconut or almond flour for batters. The recipe has 1/4 cup cornstarch, how much coconut or almond flour should I use? The recipe has grated zucchini, parmesan cheese, and an egg as the main ingredients. Thank you for your help!

      • I’ve made similar recipes by substituting flaxseed meal for corn starch in a 1:1 ratio. If you want to use coconut flour, start with 1 tablespoon and cook a test pancake to see if it works or if you need a little more. Coconut flour sucks up moisture and a little goes a long way.

  90. Betty Lutz says:

    Thank you.😊

  91. Chastity says:

    What can I substitute for tapioca starch in a keto past recipe?

    • I’d have to know more about the recipe in order to make a recommendation. Coconut flour, almond flour, and/or flaxseed meal are all options but which one works best is based on the function tapioca starch serves in the recipe.

  92. Paula says:

    I wanted to make a quiche or flan. What could I use instead of the egg.

  93. Linda Shearman says:

    I need to use glucomanan powder to replace half cup all purpose flour
    Do you know the ratio of gluccomanan to flour
    Thank you

    • Glucomannan powder is best used to thicken sauces, soups, or custard style desserts similar to corn starch, tapioca starch, or potato starch. There’s no ratio to replace wheat flour with glucomannan powder because application and amount of liquid matters. One teaspoon of glucomannan powder thickens one cup liquid. Mix the powder in several tablespoons of cold liquid until dissolved then whisk into hot liquid to avoid clumping.

  94. purplecow says:

    Thank you so much for all the info. I intend to write them all down 🙂 just wanted to seek help on replacing xanthan gum to psyllium powder. what is the ratio if am making vegan marshmallows? thanks much

  95. Ash tree says:

    I do not have xanthan gum or psyllium powder or corn starch. what is a good substitution for psyllium powder???

  96. AnnaRutth says:

    So glad I ran across this!! All the subs I need in one place. Thanks so much. Glad you’re a whiz in the kitchen, I’m a dud!!😩😩

  97. konla says:

    I love this article. Answered many questions for me.

  98. iamse7en says:

    Thank you so much for this site and your willingness to answer questions. I read through your answers about arrowroot substitutions, but this recipe ( may be different due to it being so eggy (German pancakes). The recipe calls for 1.3 tablespoons of arrowroot, but I’d like to replace it and make the recipe more low carb / keto friendly. I have xanthan gum or flaxseed meal, which are great but have different properties than arrowroot. Or I guess I could increase coconut flour but I fear it won’t hold together as well. What would you recommend? Thank you so very much!

    • Thanks for reading! Flaxseed meal or chia seed meal are my go-to substitutions for starches. I’d try 1 tablespoon in the recipe and see how it goes. I agree that coconut flour wouldn’t be a good idea. I’ve had some spectacular failures with coconut flour based pancakes. They wouldn’t hold together, were extremely dense, and had consistency of bad mashed potatoes. Happy cooking!

      • iamse7en says:

        I’m sorry, I misread the recipe. It calls for 2.3 tbsp of arrowroot. In that case would you recommend 1 or 2 tbsp of flaxseed meal? Thanks!

      • Since there’s not many dry ingredients to stabilize the pancake, I’d use 2 Tbs. I don’t think the extra tsp is necessary. Another alternative is to use super fine almond flour in place of the arrowroot powder.

  99. Don says:

    We use plain pork rinds for pancakes. That’s great for Keto, cause they are fat. There are many recipes on the net for pork rind pancakes and you would not know the difference.

  100. Lori Derksen says:

    I’m making a low carb bread that calls for psyllium husks (5 T).

    I do have xanthum gum which I’ve read can be used as a replacement.

    This is addition to the coconut and almond flower.

    Can you tell me the substitution ratio?

    • Usually it’s a 1:1 ratio for substitution when going from xanthan gum to psyllium husk powder, but 5 Tbs is way too much xanthan gum in an average recipe. I would calculate the amount of xanthan gum by how many cups of flour(s) are in the recipe. You need 1/2 tsp xanthan gum for every cup of flour in bread recipes.

  101. Nicky says:

    HI there, Is it correct that 1TBS of flaxseed replaces 1 Chia egg?

  102. Susan Barbarino says:

    Can I use psyllium husk in place of whey isolate protein powder?

    • No. Psyllium husk powder should only be used in small amounts as a replacement for gluten to give dough elasticity, act as glue to make gluten free baked goods less crumbly, or as a thicker. Protein powders act more like gluten free flour to give recipes more bulk and extra nutrition. You can exchange protein powder for another type of flour like super fine almond flour.

  103. Wendy Lopez says:

    Could you give an xanthum gum equivalent to cornstarch for thickening?

  104. Wendy says:

    I have a baked cocoanut custard pie calling for 1 tbsp cornstarch. How much xanthum gum would replace? Thanks

  105. Margaret Grunseich says:

    Thank you so much for this terrific site. My question: my low carb 3 seed bread calls for 1 cup psyllium husks. I have psyllium husk powder. Can I use the powder? 1 cup of powder seems like an awful lot for 1 loaf of bread. Thanks again.

    • 1 Tbs of whole psyllium husks equals about 1 tsp psyllium husk powder. 1 cup = 16 Tbs. 16 tsp = 1/3 cup.

      You can also substitute whole flaxseeds or chia seeds for whole psyllium husks at a 1:1 ratio or ground flaxseed or chia seed meal for psyllium husk powder.

  106. Destiny says:

    1¼ cups almond flour
    5 tablespoons ground psyllium husk powder
    2 teaspoons baking powder
    1 teaspoon sea salt
    2 teaspoons apple cider vinegar
    1¼ cups boiling water
    3 egg whites

    What would I sub for psyllium hisk powder?
    I take psyllium capsules before bed, can I just empty those?

    • Ground flaxseed meal or chia seed meal are good substitutes for psyllium husk powder. Emptying capsules is also an option, but not very convenient.

      • Deirdre Holmes says:

        Thank you for this very informative site! I’ve scrolled down and finally found the recipe posted above for some insight on substituting the psyllium husk powder. (It tends to bind me up something awful). I do have chia seed meal here, so to clarify. I would use 5 tbs. of it instead of the psyllium husk powder? Should I soak the chia seed meal first or just use it as is? Thanks again to the time and effort you put in to this site.

      • Correct. It’s a 1:1 substitution ratio for chia seed meal and psyllium husk powder. I found I only need to soak the chia seeds or chia seed meal when using as an egg replacement or in gluten free yeast breads. Happy baking!

  107. RUE ZACARIAS says:

    First of all I want to thank you so much for this awesome chart!
    I follow the ketogenic eating habits and have a little question, on the following recipe how can I substitute almond flour as it is not easy to find an it is quite expensive for the common folks here.

    Here the recipe for low carb “Sourdough Baguettes”

    Dry ingredients:
    1 ½ cup almond flour (150 g / 5.3 oz)
    ⅓ cup psyllium husk powder (40 g / 1.4 oz)
    ½ cup coconut flour (60 g / 2.1 oz)
    ½ cup flaxmeal (75 g / 2.6 oz)
    1 tsp baking soda
    1 tsp salt (pink Himalayan or sea salt)
    Wet ingredients:
    6 large egg whites
    2 large eggs
    ¾ cup low-fat buttermilk (180 g/ 6.5 oz) – full-fat would make them too heavy and they may not rise
    ¼ cup white wine vinegar or apple cider vinegar (60 ml/ 2 fl oz)
    1 cup lukewarm water (240 ml / 8 fl oz)

    Greetings from Mexico!


    • Any type of tree nut or seed can be ground into flour at home and used as a substitute for almond flour. I’ve used raw cashews, raw pepitas, and roasted sunflower seeds (raw sunflower seeds had an unpleasant green flavor to me) in similar recipes with good results. The flavors will change slightly, for example cashews are sweeter than almonds, but the baked goods still tasted good.

      Good luck & happy baking!

  108. Debbie says:

    hello i am looking to make a blueberry pie pilling on the stove and recipe calls for 3tbsp ornstarch so i want to suv with xanthum or guar gum , how much would i use ? is there anything else non starch i could try also?

    • Either can be used. The standard ratio for xanthan gum as a thickener is 1/8 tsp per cup of liquid. The standard ratio for guar gum as a thickener is 3/8 tsp per cup of liquid. Since blueberries have a lot of their own pectin, I’d use either 1/4 tsp of xanthan gum or 1 tsp of guar gum. Sprinkle lightly on top the blueberries & whisk in immediately to reduce clumping.

      Pectin used to thicken jams & jellies can be used as an alternative thickener in fruit pies, especially if they’ll be served cold or at room temperature.

  109. Chloe says:

    Hi! I was just wondering: I have a coconut cream/Aquafaba whipped cream recipe that calls for 1/4 tsp of xantham gum, but I was hoping I could use agar agar instead. Would that work? The recipe is:
    135 ml / ½ cup + 1 tbsp aquafaba (chickpea brine)
    50-75 g / 4-6 tbsp sugar
    1½ cup coconut cream from a tin of full fat coconut milk
    ¼ tsp xanthan gum

    Thanks so much, you are a genius!

    • Thanks, Chloe! Agar agar powder has to be boiled in liquid for 3-5 minutes to activate its gelling/thickening properties so I’m not sure if it would work in this application. You could try boiling it in half of the aquafaba and then whipping it with the rest of the aquafaba until it cools down enough to add the coconut cream. Substitution ratio is 2:1 agar agar powder to xanthan gum so you’d only need 1/2 tsp of it. You could also try the recipe without a stabilizer if you’re going to use it immediately. Good luck!

  110. Sophia Musgrave says:

    Thank you for this website, I’m watching my carbs, diabetic & am gf, many GF pre pkg breads r super high in carbs so I’m struggling to find a low carb & healthier GF bread recipe. I tried coconut flour but it crumbles & does not keep well. I use it in most of my muffins. Trying a recipe that uses a mix with almond flour now. It called for psyllium husk powder, & I didn’t realize that is metamucil, I don’t think that would help my IBS & already sensative stomach issues. So love the idea of chia seeds ground as I know I can eat those safely. U just made my day 😉

    • Thank you for taking time to respond to my substitution charts. I’m happy it’s useful to you. Gluten free and/or low carb baking takes a lot of practice and being unfraid to fail or eat your failures! 😁 I’ve made many croutons from not so great breads.

      Best of luck & happy baking!

  111. michelle Daniels says:

    If I was looking to substitute milled flaxseed for psyllium would it be 1 tablespoon for one tablespoon?

  112. Jill Keech says:

    Hello! I have a recipe for keto savory pancakes and it calls for 1 tbsp of ground psyllium husk powder. I have coconut flour at home and I’m wondering if I can use that instead? If so, how much would I use? Thanks!

    • Unfortunately coconut flour doesn’t make a good substitution for psyllium husk powder. Psyllium husk powder is a mucilage fiber that turns gelatinous when added to water whereas coconut flour fibers soak up liquids. Flaxseed meal and chia seed meal both have mucilage fibers and are appropriate substitutions. Gums like guar gum or xanthan gum can also be used as a substitute for psyllium husk powder.

      • Jill Keech says:

        Thanks for getting back to me! If I were to use chia seed, do I have to grind it up first and how much would replace the 1 tbsp?

      • Yes, grind them first. I use a coffee/spice grinder. I’d try a straight 1:1 ratio substitution first. It may need half a tablespoon more, depending on how fresh the chia seeds are and how well they bloom after soaking for 10-15 minutes.

  113. Deasy says:

    I have bread,cake & muffin recipe. Im baking for my son that can’t have egg. & i prefer not to use baking powder & baking soda.can u give me any suggestion or tips? Thank u.

    • 1 Tbs flaxseed meal, 1 Tbs chia seed meal, or 1 tsp psyllium husk powder soaked in 3 Tbs of warm liquid (water, milk, non-dairy milk, etc) for 5-10 minutes are good replacements for one egg. Another egg replacement option is aquafaba, the liquid from canned chickpeas/garbanzo beans. Use 3 Tbs aquafaba to replace one egg. Aquafaba can also be whipped like egg whites for meringues and marshmallows.

      Options for leavening agents without using eggs, baking soda, or baking powder are limited. Yeast, sourdough starter, and club soda are the most common alternatives.

  114. Dawn says:

    If a soup recipe calls for 1 tsp xanthan gum how much arrowroot would I use to substitute? Thanks

    • There’s no straight substitution for xanthan gum and arrowroot powder; it’s best to go by how much liquid is in the soup. You’ll need 1/2 tsp arrowroot powder for every 1 cup of liquid in the soup. Mix the arrowroot powder in twice as much cold water to form a slurry and whisk it into the simmering soup. As soon as the soup thickens, remove from heat. Arrowroot powder is heat sensitive and its thickening power can break under too high of temperatures.

  115. Tifa says:

    Hi. Do you know if small tapioca pearls (soaked) can be used in place of chia seeds in a pudding recipe?

    • Tapioca pearls would still need to be cooked, depending on the brand and how long they were soaking, anywhere from 5-45 minutes. Look for regular tapioca pudding recipes. I’ve only used them in savory applications as a replacement for rice in congee.

  116. Kim Loretta says:

    Great information here!
    I have the following recipe for a chocolate cake and don’t have the psyllium husk powder. I do have ground flax seed or xanthum gum. Which would you recommend as a replacement and what would the conversion be? Thank you!
    1 cup almond flour
    4 tablespoons butter, melted
    3 large eggs
    ¼ cup psyllium husk powder
    ¼ cup cocoa powder
    ¼ cup coconut milk
    ¼ cup sour cream
    ¼ cup erythritol
    1 teaspoon vanilla
    1 teaspoon baking powder

  117. monica says:

    I have a recipe that calls for 1 tablespoon of psyllium husk can I use xanthan gum

    • Depends on the type of recipe and how psyllium husk powder is used (as thickener, gluten replacement, or bulk in place of flour). 1 Tbs of xanthan gum is too much for the majority of recipes, particularly if used as a thickener or gluten replacement (see measurements above in the charts for these uses). Xanthan gum isn’t a good replacement for flour in any recipe. You’d have better luck with substituting flaxseed meal or chia seed meal.

  118. Miss Anna says:

    I have been making the Communion bread for our church for some years. Now due to ingredient sensitivities the Elders want me to make gluten free Communion bread, it needs to be unleavened too. I have tried several bought mixtures, many contain xanthen gum which is not tolerated by some. I continue to search, in the meantime I have found a mixture that has 1/4 cup xanthan gum in the ingredients, this seems excessive per what I’ve read here in the comments. What would be a good substitute in this dry mixture. I have whole psyllium husk and psyllium husk powder, how much should I use? Or is there something else you would suggest? Let me know if it would be advantageous to you for me to post the whole recipe. Thank you for your help with this.

    • A 1/4 cup of xanthan gum in a recipe is shocking unless the recipe makes a very large batch. I would substitute 1/4 cup psyllium husk powder for the xanthan gum and do a test batch to see how it turns out. You may need to adjust the amount down depending on texture. Psyllium husk powder, especially in large amounts like that, can also cause problems in those with food sensitivities and certain health issues. Other options are golden flaxseed meal or chia seed meal.

  119. Miss Anna says:

    Rethinking my previous post about the Communion bread flour, here is the entire recipe:
    2 cups brown rice flour,
    2 cups sorghum flour
    2 cup white rice flour
    2 cups sweet rice flour
    1 cup potato starch
    1 cup arrowroot starch
    1/2 cup millet flour
    1/4 cup potato flour
    1/4 cup xanthan gum

    Thank you for any help you can give me on this.

    • The amount of xanthan gum almost makes sense if the recipe author uses 1 tsp xanthan gum per cup of gluten free flour, but that’s still too much based on my experience. A more reasonable amount would be 2 Tbs xanthan gum per 12 cups flour.

      • Miss Anna says:

        I am unable to actually use the xanthan gum so how much psyllium husk/powder should I use instead OR flax OR chia seed….? I thank you for your prompt answers as I need to speak to people tomorrow, about my findings. Thanks again for your help.

      • I’d do a 1:1 ratio substitution with any of the other choices, but make a small test batch first by quartering the recipe to see how the taste and texture turn out before committing to a large batch.

  120. Marilyn says:

    I have a recipe for flax egg cinnamon bun muffins. It only uses flaxseeds & 5 eggs, no flour. Can Chia seeds be exchanged for the flax in this recipe?

    Thank you!

    • Does the recipe call for whole seeds or ground? If ground, then you can make a straight substitution. Whole chia seeds are more mucilaginous than whole flax seeds, so the texture of the muffins would be gummier. Hemp hearts (hemp seeds with the shells removed) might be a better substitution for whole flax seeds.

  121. Raven says:

    Good Day,

    Im so happy to have found your site. I don’t eat eggs and also have to use a large toaster oven to bake. The temperature isn’t always even so i struggle with gluten/egg free baking challenges. Also, i have allergies to all nuts with the exception of coconut. I just started back experimenting with coconut flour. I used Bob’s Red Mills gluten free egg replacer with good results this week. However, it’s a bit too salty due to all the baking soda in it. I attempted to use an even blend of psyllium/chia/flax (1tbs of the blend with 1/4 cup water) and the muffins came out very dry tasting yet still a little damp in the middle. so i had to cook it much longer. Do you have a suggestion? the structure was great. its the middle not beinf fully done and the dry afyer taste. Even with the egg replacer i had to cook it longer due to my uneven temp in the toaster oven. Should i just use 2 Chia eggs or flax eggs. Whenever i use flax eggs i find that i cant cook at the suggested 350 degree temp or the outside burns and the inside is still damp and i have to cook for an hour or more instead if 20-30 minutes. This is the recipe below:

    ½ cup coconut flour
    ⅓ cup coconut oil or ghee, melted
    4 eggs, at room temperature
    2 Tbs. unsweetened applesauce
    2 Tbs. raw honey
    ½ tsp. baking soda
    1 tsp. apple cider vinegar

    I like making pancake muffins and regular muffins for carry and go breakfast or snacks. i really want to master gluten free cooking especially with coconut flour.

    Thank you for so much for all that you do!

    • I don’t have much experience using coconut flour alone because the fiber content soaks up so much liquid that it gives baked goods a weird texture. Have you tried using aquafaba (water from canned beans) as an egg replacement? Whipping it into a soft meringue before adding it to the other ingredients may improve both the baking times and uncooked centers.

      Are you using whole flaxseeds and chia seeds as egg replacement or ground? I’ve had better results with 1 tsp ground seeds and using only 3 Tbs of water rather than 1/4 cup. Using warm water also increases the mucilaginous qualities of flax/chia/psyllium husk as does letting it rest for an adequate amount of time (5-10 minutes). You can also mix ingredients and let the entire batter rest before baking.

      If these tips don’t help, try reducing the egg replacement down to 3 rather than 4, but add 3 Tbs extra applesauce or melted fat (butter, coconut oil) to keep the fluid balance in the recipe the same.

      Happy baking!

      • Raven says:

        Thank you for your reply!

        Aquafaba – thank you for this tip. I imagine it would work better. However, im not a fan anymore of bean flours or Aquafaba because both cause too much gas due to the sugars and proteins that we aren’t naturally able to digest properly.

        Seeds: The flax seeds are ground and the psyllium husks/chia seeds are whole. I normally let any egg replacer rest and use hot water too.

        Im going to take your advice and reduce the egg replacer. I will also test a second recipe seperately adding another grainfree/glutenfree flour. I like the taste of coconut flour by itself. It has a lovely vanilla cake flavor. In my opinion, it loses most of that flavor when you add other flours.

        Thank you for your time!

  122. dreadchic1 says:

    Thanks fir your work. Gave you experimented and reach conckusions about using aqua faba (liquid from cooking chickpeas) as an emulsifyer – not levening?

  123. Nazaam says:

    I have a recipe for gelatin powder which I don’t have. Can I use corn starch and how much is equal to 15tsp of gelatin.

    • There’s no straight substitution ratio when it comes to replacing gelatin with corn starch, because it depends greatly on the recipe and how firm you want the final product. To use corn starch as a thickener, you can use between 1 tsp to 1 Tbs per cup of liquid. Remember corn starch has to be mixed with a little cold liquid and added to simmering liquid and boiled for several minutes to avoid lumping and for proper thickening. Other substitutions for gelatin include agar agar, fruit pectin, and xanthan gum.

  124. Suesanne says:

    I would like to substitute arrowroot for xanthan gum. The recipe calls for 1/2 tsp can then gum. How much arrowroot do I use?
    Thank You for Your time

    • There’s no straight substitution for xanthan gum and arrowroot powder; it depends on the recipe and how xanthan gum is used in it. In baked goods, you’ll want to use 1/2 tsp arrowroot powder for every cup of flour. As a thickener, you’ll need 2 1/2 tsp arrowroot powder for every cup of liquid.

  125. Michele says:

    I hope you still answer on old posts, as I just found this!
    Psyllium husks- is there a difference in quantity used if the package says psyllium husk flakes vs whole psyllium husks? Would I use less if a recipe calls for 4 tbsp of whole husks,?

  126. Carleen Bruce says:

    I am making zucchini pizza crust, it calls for 1/4 cup cornstarch, I want it low carb so how much ground flaxseed should I use?

  127. ericb says:

    Hi, I’ve been working with the following (modified) Dan Lepard recipe and it makes a loaf of Gluten-free bread with terrific consistency, albeit zero nutritional value. But I’m wondering if it really necessary to use the epic amounts of psyllium (which is expensive) *and* flax required here. Can you give any advice, please? Thanks so much!!

    30 grams flax seeds (whole, ground)
    675ml oz warm water
    10 grams SAF yeast
    100ml oz natural yoghurt
    450g cornflour
    7 grams (1 teaspoon) salt
    5 grams sugar
    50g psyllium husk powder
    50ml olive oil

    • I usually use one or the other but not both in recipes, though they have slightly different properties and psyllium husk powder is often considered a better gluten replacement, especially in breads. I would first try reducing the psyllium husk powder by half and replacing it with flaxseed meal to see if the consistency of the bread is still good. If that loaf works to your liking, try exchanging all the psyllium husk powder for flaxseed meal. Good luck!

  128. ericb says:

    Thanks very much! To clarify: since the recipe already uses 30g flaxseed (I weigh it out before putting in oven for ~6-8min, then grinding in coffee maker), are you saying I should try to double that number (while reducing the psyllium by the corresponding amount, basically)?

    Great blog & your help is much appreciated – many thanks again for your hard work! 🙂

    • Correct, though I don’t recommend toasting the flaxseeds prior to grinding them. I’m not sure what that does to the mucilaginous properties of flaxseeds that helps make it a good replacement for gluten and it also further oxidizes/damages the omega-3 fatty acids in the seeds.

  129. Charlotte says:

    Hi there! It’s awesome that you’re able to answer so many baking questions for everyone!

    I’m following a vegan vanilla cupcake recipe that’s Gf, but I’m using regular unbleached flour instead of the cupcakes being Gf. The recipe is asking to use 3/4 tsp of xanthan gum, but is it necessary to even apply this to my dry ingredients if I’m not making them GF?

    I thought corn starch would be a good substitute, but I found out from reading your comments that it’s not.

    Full recipe:

    2 2/3 cups flour (Gf is what she used)
    1 1/4 cups of caster sugar
    Pinch of salt
    3/4 tsp of xanthan gum
    2 tsp of baking powder
    2 tsp of baking soda

    1/2 cup of vegetable oil
    2 cups of almond milk
    2 tsp of vanilla extract

    Hopefully I hear back from you! Thank you reading 🙂

    • Charlotte C says:

      Hi there I have no clue if this is your direct email, but it said you replied, but I don’t see it!

      -Charlotte 🌻


    • You can eliminate the xanthan gum entirely if you’re using wheat flour. It’s an additive specifically used to replace the gluten found in wheat flour in gluten free recipes.

      You may also need to reduce the leavening agents (baking soda & powder) by at least half when converting the recipe to wheat flour. I suggest using one or the other, but not both. In gluten free recipes more leavening is used because of the lack of gluten to improve the leavening & structure of the baked good. In wheat flour recipes, too much leavening agents cause a bitter or salty flavor and can cause the baked good to rise too quickly and fall after cooling.

      Happy baking!

      • Charlotte says:

        Thank you for this info!!! I ended up leaving it out like I thought, but still used both the baking soda and powder. Somehow they still turned out beautifully golden brown/ bouncy to the touch when I pulled them out after 25mins. I know for next time time though!! Thanks again for your reply 🙂

        Enjoy your day

  130. Charlotte says:

    Hi there again. Hopefully I’m not posting too many times.

    My email said you replied to my question, but I don’t see a response.

    Thanks again 🙂

  131. Patie says:

    Can i use gelatine when a receipe calls for pysillium husk when making bread

    • Yes! I haven’t experimented with it, but a friend prefers it in her gluten free baked goods. Whisk 1/2 tsp powdered gelatin per cup of flour into your dry ingredients and make sure it’s well combined before adding liquids.

      Happy baking!

  132. Judy says:

    I can not have baking powder or baking soda what can I use as a substitute in quick breads, muffins and pancakes ( it must be low FODMAP)

    • You have two options for leavening other than baking soda or baking powder: 1) whipped egg whites with a stabilizer like lemon juice, vinegar, or cream of tartar 2) carbonated beverages like club soda or sparkling water in place of liquids. Whichever you use, be careful not to over-mix the batter and deflate the leavening agents.

  133. Kelly says:

    I have a Keto bagel recipe calling for 2tbsp of Whey protein powder. Can i substitute Psyllium Husk powder instead?

  134. Hannah Meisenheimer says:

    Hello! I really want to make some different kinds/flavors of “safe” Keto chocolate to snack on, & use in baking! My first mission is to make homemade butterscotch chips/chunks for my Keto oatmeal cookies! Unfortunately, I don’t have all the ingredients listed! I’ve been seriously craving it since handing out all the delicious (yet “un-safe” for me/my diet), regular chocolate candy bars for Halloween, & now I need chocolate! The white chocolate recipe (for my butterscotch chip base) calls for sunflower lecithin – as an emulsifier, I’m sure – but I don’t have any & was hoping you could help me find/recommend a suitable replacement for it!? The recipe also calls for heavy cream or whole milk powder, but I could only find instant nonfat dry milk. Can I still use the nonfat dry milk & maybe add something else to help compensate for the lack of fat? Please help! We have a lot of left over Halloween chocolates, & they look better & better every time I look in my pantry! Thanks so much in advance & I look forward to reply!

    • I know your struggle. I stopped giving out candy for Halloween last year & now hand out nuts, cheese, & meat sticks. The kids are so excited to see something other than candy, even the teens!

      Xanthan gum, guar gum, or instant pectin (Sure-jel) can be used instead of lecithin. Non-fat milk powder should work instead of full fat. I’ve made white chocolate with buttermilk powder and goat milk powder before, as well, to add a little different flavor.

  135. Jody Vining says:

    Hi! I have a recipe for a cherry pie that calls for 25grams cornstarch for the filling. I am wondering if i can use chia seeds instead. and how much would you think? thank you so much!!!!

  136. Shayna says:

    I would like to use chia seeds in replacement of psyllium husk powder. What is the ratio?

  137. Susie Poole says:

    I have a low carb recipe for a layer cake that calls for 1tbsp of arrowroot powder that I need to replace. Would xanthan gum work & if so what is the ratio?

  138. Jessica says:

    I have a recipe that calls for Arrowroot and I am looking for a low glycemic substitute. Would Xanthan Gum or Coconut Floor work? If so what do you think the ratio would be? Thanks so much for any help in advance.

    • The substitute used depends greatly on how arrowroot is used in the recipe. It can be added for bulk and texture improvements like a gluten free flour or as a thickener. I suggest checking my charts above or providing me with more details about the recipe. Thanks!

  139. Sarah says:

    I have a recipe that falls for whole husk psyllium flakes. I have whole husk psyllium powder on hand. Is it a 1:1 ratio? Or do I need to decrease the powder amount compared to the flakes? Thanks!

  140. Patricia Cummings says:

    I am making a paleo berry cobbler. it calls for 1 teaspoon xanrhan Gum. I am out, and so was Kroger is there anything else I can use in place of this for a substitute.
    Thank You

  141. whironim says:

    I am trying to replace arrowroot with Xantham gum or gelatin. I use arrowroot in 1 tablespoon increments- what would you recommend as a conversion? it is used in Asian foods as a thickener in a gluten free (allergy) and Keto house

    • Rather than a straight substition ratio to replace arrowroot with xanthan gum or gelatin as a thickened, it’s easier to calculate how much to use per cup of liquid. It ranges from 2 tsp to 2 Tbs of xanthan gum per cup of liquid and 1.5 tsp to 2.5 Tbs of gelatin per cup of liquid, depending on desired thickness. Xanthan gum works at any temperature and acidity, but breaks down when a solution contains more than 60% sugar. Gelatin requires blooming in cold liquid, hot liquids to dissolve, and then cooling to thicken. Gelatin breaks down at temperatures over 212°F, porcine but not beef gelatin breaks down to acidic fluids with a pH of 3 and below, and all gelatin in sensitive to alcohol and plant enzymes found in papaya, pineapple, kiwi, mango, & fresh ginger.

  142. Michele K. Winslow says:

    How much corn starch should I use to replace ½ – teaspoon xanthan gum in a cake recipe?

    • I wouldn’t use corn starch; starches are not adequate gluten replacements. Instead try 1/2 tsp psyllium husk powder or 1 tsp finely ground golden flaxseed meal or chia seed meal. If you don’t have those available, you can leave it out entirely. The structures of cakes depend much less on gluten than bread doughs.

  143. Soraya says:

    I’m trying to make a smoothie but need a thickening agent and don’t want to use guar gum. Can I use chia seeds. If so what ratio do suggest (cup of water to tablespoons of ground chia seeds.)

    • I usually add 2-3 tsp of chia seed meal or flaxseed meal to smoothies, or 1 Tbs whole seed, for added nutrition as well as thickening. Any more than that can make the smoothie too thick.

  144. Kristen says:

    This is such a great resource! Thank you for continuing to respond after all of these years. I’m baking a low carb birthday cake and the vanilla coconut icing calls for 5T sunflower lecithin as the thickening agent. I’ve read than Xanthan gum can be used as a substitute, but was wondering if you were familiar with a conversion ratio or other substitute? Thank you!

    • I used xanthan gum in a meringue recipe yesterday and it worked beautifully. My egg whites have never been so fuffy! I don’t have a substitution ratio for xanthan gum and lecithin, so you should carefully experiment. I suggest starting with 1/2 tsp of xanthan gum sprinkled over the frosting while it’s being whipped with an electric mixer and increase slowly by 1/4 tsp increments until it reaches your desired consistency. I sprinkle xanthan gum by holding the measuring spoon over the mixing bowl and gently tapping the side of the spoon. Good luck & happy baking!

  145. Sharon says:

    I’m looking to swap out xanthan gum for arrowroot. What’s the ratio, please?

    • Unfortunately there’s no straight substitution ratio for xanthan gum to arrow root powder since the amount of either used depends on the type of recipe. Check the substition charts above for arrow root powder amounts. In general, as a thickening agent use 2 1/2 tsp arrow root powder per each cup of liquid.

  146. Yen says:

    Hi. What would be the ratio if i replace 1/4c of arrowroot starch with chia seeds? Tia

    • There’s no straight substitution ratio as arrowroot powder and chia seeds have different mechanisms of action. You have to consider how the arrowroot powder is used in the recipe: as a thickener, bulking agent, egg replacement, etc. and then choose how much chia seeds to use based on the amount of flour or liquids in the recipe. See the substitution charts above for common ratios. Good luck!

  147. rose ann says:

    what flour is best for xanthan gum substitute and in what ratio?

    • There’s no straight substitution for xanthan gum as it can be used either as a gluten replacement or a thickening agent. As a gluten replacement in baked goods, chia seed meal, flaxseed meal, psyllium husk powder, guar gum, agar agar powder, or gelatin powder can be used as a replacement; standard ratio is 1 tsp per cup of gluten free flour for breads and dough and 1/2 tsp for cakes and cookies. As a thickening agent in sauces and dressings, arrow root powder, tapioca starch, corn starch, agar agar, or gelatin can be used. See the chart above for amounts per cup of liquid and other caveats since it varies depending on the thickening agent used.

  148. irma osnayo says:

    Hi! I’m trying to make keto panettone. It calls for 1/2 cup whole psyllium and 1 tsp xanthan gum. I have xantham but not the psyllium . How can I replace it? I really need help. I’ve done it for time and it always comes out to moist, gelatinous like. Not eatible 😦

  149. irma osnayo says:

    I left I message earlier but I think I need to provide more info. I’m trying to make a keto panettone and the recipe includes 55 gr almond flour, 50 gr golden flaxseed flour/meal, 1/4 cup psyllium husk and 1 tsp xanthan gum. I have read you don’t combine them in a recipe. So, what can I do. I’ve made it 4 times and I always get a gelatinous like panettone, like it’s not fully dry .
    Besides I don’t have WHOLE psyllium only the powder one. What can I do? I need it to work.

    • Honestly, I would look for a different recipe rather than continuing to try and adapt the current one. With that much mucilaginous seeds in it, I doubt you’ll ever get a texture that you like. Best of luck!

      • irma osnayo says:

        Thanks. But I have only found 2 recipes for keto panettone and both have the 3 ingredientes 😦

      • Could you adapt a low carb sweet bread or fruit cake recipe to make something similar to panettone? That’s usually how I start my recipe development. Good luck & happy baking!

  150. Sylvie Jelly says:

    I need to replace 1/2 cup of cornstarch to make my bread Keto. I googled and it says that I can use Psyllium Husk. But how much is needed to replace 1/2 cup if cornstarch? I never used Psyllium Husk before so I’m not sure how it works? Thanks

    • Psyllium husk is best used in small amounts as a gluten replacement rather than as a starch/flour replacement. I suggest replacing the 1/2 cup cornstarch with a 1/4 cup golden flaxseed meal or a 1/4 cup chia seed meal instead. Another option is using 2 oz softened cream cheese as a replacement. If you still prefer to use psyllium, then use either 2 tablespoons psyllium husk powder or 1/4 cup whole psyllium husks. Good luck & happy baking!

  151. MP says:

    I want to make a coconut flour pizza crust and the recipe calls for psyllium husk but i can’t tolerate that well and i want to try chia seeds or flax meal instead but i am not sure what the conversion would be…would it still be 1:1 or different bc of the type of flour i am using? it calls for 2 TBL of the Psyllium Husk…Thanks

  152. Josephine C Ding says:

    My keto bread recipe calls for psyllium husk powder. I worried about allergy because I have many food allergies. Is there anyway I can substitute it with arrowroot flour which I know I can eat? If so, what amount ratio should I sub it for? Thanks!

    • In low carb baking psyllium husk powder is used as a gluten replacement due to its mucilaginous qualities similar to flaxseed and chia seed. In gluten free baking arrowroot powder is a starch used as a bulking agent (aka flour) to improve texture. One can not be exchanged for the other as they serve different purposes. Xanthan gum, flaxseed meal, or chia seed meal can all be successfully substituted for psyllium husk powder. Other gluten replacers include gelatin, pectin, agar agar, and guar gum. Substitute ratios for most of these are listed above. Good luck & happy baking!

      • Josephine C Ding says:

        Thanks for your quick response . I looked up your substitution charts and couldn’t find the sub ratio between psyllium husk powder and chia seeds. Maybe you can provide me with that ratio? Thanks again! My recipe calls for 5 TBSP of psyllium husk powder. How much ground chia seeds should I use instead?

    • You’re welcome! It’s a straight 1:1 substitution ratio for psyllium husk powder to chia seed meal so you’d need 5 Tbs of chia seed meal.

  153. Susane M Trottier Leblanc says:

    ok well I’m trying a new recipe for low carb bread using a Bread maker ,they are asking for 11/2 cup of vital wheat gluten can I substitute for equal amount of isolate whey powder and add 1/2 tsp Xanthan gum ?

    • I’ve found that too much whey isolate makes baked goods very dry textured. Instead of substituting all the vital wheat gluten with whey isolate powder, try a 1/2 cup of whey isolate, 1 cup of almond flour, and a 1/4 tsp xanthan gum for every cup of dry ingredients. Good luck & happy baking!

  154. Arax says:

    If the recipe is asking for 1/2 cup arrowroot powder, can I use 1/2 cup chia seed powder?

    • I wouldn’t recommend it. Arrowroot is a starch whereas chia is a mucilaginous seed. The texture and flavor would be vastly different, and not in a good way. I suggest increasing the amount of other flours in the recipe, such as almond flour, and using chia seed powder sparingly as a gluten replacement.

  155. lisa dakin says:

    Brilliant web page. It’s just been added to my favourites 🙂

    I’m making plain keto scones but would like to substitute the xantham gum for either psyllium husk powder or flaxseed meal. Please can you tell me the amount I would need for either; original recipe is;
    90g almond flour
    20g coconut flour
    30g cubed butter
    1/4 tsp salt
    2 tbsp heavy cream
    1/2 tsp xantham gum

  156. Rachel says:

    I have a couple of recipes that call for coconut flour (usually with almond flour or ground almonds) I don’t like how coconut flour alters the taste (in a quiche pastry it’s not pleasant) what would be the best choice of low carb flour to use as a substitute and the ratio?

    Wasn’t sure if flaxseed meal could be used or psyllium husk? Or if those blended with another flour would be better.

    New to the world of baking without grains and I know coconut flour is a funny one to cook with during to how absorbent it is.

    Thanking you

    • I understand your dislike of coconut flour and use only small amounts in baked goods myself unless I’m looking for that coconut flavor. Due to the high fiber content of coconut flour, you can substitute oat fiber, not oat flour, in a 1:1 ratio or use almond flour in a 1:4 ratio, e.g. substitute a 1/4 cup of coconut flour with 1 cup almond flour. You can add a tsp or two of flaxseed meal or psyllium husk powder if needed as a gluten replacement based on how many cups of almond flour you use in the recipe (see charts above). Happy Baking!

  157. sushma221 says:

    Hi, Can I use flaxseed / Chia seeds as a substitute for gelatin in gummy bears? I am planning to make jelly kind of stuff.

    • I wouldn’t recommend it. There are recipes for chia seed based jams if you’re looking for something like that. For a more firmly set gel as in gummy bears, alternatives to gelatin include agar agar, xanthan gum, and pectin.

  158. LeAnn says:

    I forgot to tell my grocery delivery service not to substitute my All-Purpose Gluten Free Flour, so now I have Gluten Free 1 for 1 Flour which has xanthan gum already include. The bread recipe that I make uses psyllium husk powder not xanthan gum. Can I used the 1 for 1 flour and adjust my psyllium? I love the bread so I really don’t want to mess up my bread.

    • Without knowing the exact ratio of xanthan gum to flour in the flour blend, I recommend first doing a test loaf of the recipe without psyllium to see how it turns out. Test loaves can be made by halving the recipe if possible. If the texture isn’t quite right, you can make another test loaf with a quarter and/or half the amount of psyllium. Good luck!

  159. Marianne Knapp says:

    What is the salt free Vegan Organic items to replace baking soda and baking powder is it Arrowroot and psyllium husks? Thanks

    • Arrowroot and psyllium are not leavening agents. Yeast is the most popular leavening agent and there are ways to capture wild yeasts like making sourdough starter with a organic cabbage or apples. Otherwise, replacing the liquids in a recipe with carbonated water can give you a little bit of leavening, but not much. Also keep in mind that sodium is an essential mineral for fluid balance, muscle function, and nerve conductivity in the body. The small amounts of sodium in baking soda and baking powder is not harmful.

  160. Julie Ham says:

    Have You tried to make gluten free pasta noodles(any kind), without Xanthan gum, and without eggs?

    If You have, I would love to know what flours You used, and other ingredients as well please.

    Thank You for Your time.


    • I made buckwheat noodles with buckwheat flour, psyllium husk powder, olive oil, and salt once. They didn’t turn out as tender as I had hoped and I haven’t tried again. You should be able to find recipes for them online.

      Happy cooking!

  161. Rachel says:

    Hi. I’m making lemon bars, lemon cookies, lemon cupcakes. I’m on keto and don’t know how to substitute the following ingredients:
    2 cups of regular white sugar = how much monk fruit sugar
    2 cups powdered sugar = how much monk fruit sugar
    2/3 cup evaporated milk = ??? Keto
    Maybe almond or coconut milk?
    1 top baking powder = physillium husk?
    1/2 cup cornstarch = ??
    Thank you in advance.

  162. Lys says:

    I have a question that I hope you can answer (I couldn’t find any info on this on the internet and don’t know where to ask):
    I’ve been trying to use gelatin as a binder in GF and dairy-free keto pancakes (without omitting the eggs), so the pancakes don’t crumble and fall appart. My question is: since gelatin sets at a cold / cool temperature, does it make sense to use it for the purpose I mentioned, since gelatin is going to be cooked in a pan?! And one doesn’t exactly serve pancakes cold or cool anyway…
    I’m asking this because when I added the powdered gelatin to the pancake batter, it thickened it nicely, but as soon as the batter hit the pan, the texture of the batter became noticeably runnier (still good, but observable), so I thought “maybe I’m denaturing the gelatin” or maybe it makes no sense to add gelatin here as a binder, if it “disappears” by being heated?! Hopefully you can enlighten me with your experience and knowledge about this particular ingredient… 😉 The pancakes I came up with are good, I’m just wondering if the gelatin here makes any sense (if it gets denatured by heat, it wouldn’t make sense?!!) or it does anything at all; I did notice the pancakes didn’t crumble / break (as they did without it), so it must have done something right. Still don’t understand the behaviour / role of this ingredient in my recipe… but I read many places that people can use gelatin in baking as a binder (and we all know baking is all about heating doughs, so heating gelatin!!).
    Thank you so much in advance! 🙂

    • Great question! Gelatin isn’t denatured by heat, but it does melt, which is why the batter becomes looser when exposed to heat in the pan. For something like pancakes that is intended to be eaten hot, using gelatin as a binding agent does not make sense. Psyllium husk powder, chia seed meal, flaxseed meal, xanthan gum, or guar gum may be better options. If you’re happy with the recipe the way it is, however, you don’t have to change it. Gelatin is still a good source of protein and has health benefits.

      • Lys says:

        Thanks a lot for your experience, that’s what I thought! However, I made the pancakes today again with gelatin (no Psyllium) and they really are flexible, something they are not if you don’t add anything as a binder and will crack. So even if the gelatin melts, it must be doing something 🙂 But yes, I love Psyllium as a binder here, I agree! However, I thought Psyllium would thicken the dough too (not just be a binder) and I don’t think it thickens it; for thickenning the batter, I have to add more coconut flour. Do you think the batter should thicken with Psyllium or just bind better? Thank you so much again!

      • If you use a small amount of psyllium husk powder, 1/2 to 1 tsp per cup of flour, it should act as a binder without thickening too much. If you’re happy with the gelatin, though, there’s no need to change your recipe.

  163. Brandy Henderson says:

    If a recipe calls for 1/4 cup of all purpose flour abs I want to substitute it with xanthan gum how much do I use. It’s for a soup to thicken? Thanks

  164. Rose says:

    I’m making an almond flour pie crust and want to sub the 1/4 tsp of Xantham gum and instead use grounded Flaxseed, would I bloom the flaxseed first with 1/2 tsp warm water then use 1/4 tsp of it for my pie crust?

  165. Jane says:

    This is an amazing amount of information. I would love to print it for quick referral but it came up blank. Making choc chip cookies but had no gelatin I was faced with going to store or just not make them but thx to you I am following your suggestion and using chia instead. I’m a happy mom and my Keto daughter will be smiling too. Thx Jane

  166. Vicki Lynn says:

    Okay wizard here ya go. I need a non alcoholic substitution for Mirin and for Sake. I thoroughly enjoy cooking . It’s my passion but I absolutely cannot have any alcohol. However many recipes call for Mirin or Sake . Can you help me find suitable substitutes?

    • I often use a 3:1 ratio of fruit juice or water to vinegar to replace alcohol in dishes. White grape juice or apple juice and rice wine vinegar work well for sake or mirin. I use unsweetened cranberry juice or pomegranate juice and apple cider vinegar for red wine.

  167. kazy says:

    My recipe calls for 2 tablespoons or flour and 1 tablespoon of butter. How much xanthan gum do I need to replace the flour?

    • kazy says:

      Sorry. I forgot to mention that there’s also 1 cup chicken broth and 1 cup milk
      and 3/4 cup grated Parmesan cheese. I’m trying to make a low carb Alfredo sauce and don’t want to use flour.

      • Thanks! I was just going to ask how much liquid was in the recipe. To use xanthan gum in place of a roux you can replace both the flour and butter with an 1/8 tsp of xanthan gum per cup of liquid. Combine the broth, milk, & cheese together and once melted, sprinkle the 1/4 tsp of xanthan gum on top and whisk until thickened. I also suggest replacing the milk, which is higher in carbs, with 1/2 cup water & 1/2 cup heavy cream.

  168. kazy says:

    Thanks so much. You’re a genius. I’m bookmarking this website for any other crafty cookery questions I might have. So grateful.

  169. Mary says:

    In Help Yourself by Lindsay Hunt, to make seed bread 1/2 cup psyllium husk is called for. How much psyllium husk powder instead should be used? This is a dense bread. I can only find powder for my second batch.
    Thank you, Gayle

    • The standard substitution ratio for whole psyllium husks to ground psyllium is 2:1 so a 1/4 cup of psyllium husk powder can replace a 1/2 cup of whole husks. The texture won’t be the same as when using whole husks, though. Happy baking!

  170. Lys says:

    Hi! I’m here for help and guidance for a specific cake I need to bake for a “gathering” (3 people). I appreciate your wisdom in this area, just remembered this page now that I’ve been trying to work out a recipe with no luck! But I’m sure you can help, so here we go… The cake is like a big “donught” in shape and the original cake itself is like brioche, leavened with yeast – but as I can’t use yeast for health issues, that’s out. I’m on a keto diet, btw, so no starches and high carb flours to help me. I was trying to bake the cake from a recipe where I wanted to replace the almond flour with something else. I’m trying to make the recipe without / low in PUFAs, so not looking to replace this flour for other nut or seed flour. However, macadamia is OK for baking (no PUFA oxidation), apart from coconut flour, obviously, and I could use psyllium too if needed for a fluffier / breadier texture. So today I tried replacing the almond flour with homemade macadamia “flour” (it’s really fatty, so it doesn’t look like flour, but not nut butter either), because there’s no fine macadamia flour where I live. The dough turned out wetter than in the original recipe, so I added almost 2 tbsp ground psyllium and let it rest for a few minutes, it helped, but it was still wetter than the original. The cake came out much flatter than the original too and I have no idea about the taste, as I’m going to bed and it’s now just cooled down. It looked fatter too, as it was quite easy to remove from the pan.
    I’ll write the recipe so you can see what I’m trying to replace and hopefully guide me, because I’m at a loss on how to adapt the recipe correcting the issues I named.
    –This is the recipe (I converted amounts from the metric system): 4.4 oz cream cheese, 2.1 oz butter, 1 tbsp erythritol, 3 eggs, 7.4 oz almond flour, 0.7 oz coconut flour, 1/2 tsp baking soda, 2 tbsp lemon juice, 1/4 tsp salt, 1/2 tsp powdered anise, 1 tbsp Brandy (bake at 375 °F, 45 minutes). I wanted to replace the dairy too, but I didn’t manage and not going to for now (I’m just using non-cow dairy), apparently it’s what makes this cake rise and be fluffy without wheat, so at least the cream cheese (creamed with the butter and then the erythritol) is fundamental for this recipe.
    —If I replace almond flour with the same amount of macadamia flour, how would you adjust the recipe? Since this has to be like a brioche (fluffy/airy, dry inside, not very sweet), it can’t be a dense cake, so hesitant to add more coconut flour (what do you think?) and I already used almost 2 tbsp psyllium – but I know there are recipes that use more psyllium for a fluffy bread-like texture.
    I thought, if you replace almond flour with defatted almond flour, you need to add much less defatted flour, so with that in mind, my macadamia version of the cake (much fattier) needs much more flour, but which kind / how much, etc.? I’ve read you don’t love psyllium, but if I were to use more of it, how much would you use?
    I don’t want to use whey or egg white powder (proteins to help the cake rise? Almonds are higher in protein than macadamia, I think).
    I could maybe use a bit flax meal, but I’d like to try without if possible. So trying to juggle coconut flour – macadamia “flour” – psyllium. I can also add gelatin, but not sure it would help at all here (even if it’s a protein source).
    Sorry for the long post, I had to give you all the details for you to be able to think how I could adjust this recipe and try again tomorrow (last chance to make this cake!). A huge thanks in advance!! ❤️

    • Usually macadamia nut flour has a straight 1:1 substitution ratio with almond flour, but since you’re you’re blending your own and it has a higher fat content than commercially prepared nut flour, I suggest you reduce or eliminate the butter. I don’t think adding more macadamia nuts will help as much as increasing other flours due to the nut oil issue. The addition of 2 tablespoons of psyllium husk powder is reasonable and if the dough is still too loose, you can add a little more coconut flour. I assume the recipe calls for 20 grams; maybe increase it to 25 grams? I also recommend increasing the baking powder to 1 teaspoon for a better rise. For my low carb yeast breads, I found that whipping the egg whites until stiff peaks form and gently folding it into the dough before baking greatly reduces density and results in a lighter, fluffier bread. I hope that helps. Good luck & happy baking!

      • Lys says:

        Hello Vandy! Ah, I knew I was in the right place! 😉 Thank you SO much for your valuable advice! 😊 Yes, that’s what I had seen too, that macadamia flour could be replaced 1:1 with almond flour, but as you say, I have to grind my own macadamias, unfortunately, so that turns into some very coarse fatty thing (you can’t grind further or it starts to become a puré and finally, nut butter…).
        I also checked the almond flour I use and it has 57 g fats/100 g (that’s a lot more than defatted almond flour, like Sukrin, which has 11 g fats/100 g) and my macadamias had 76 g fats/100 g. So I did a quick calculation and it looks like by replacing almond flour with macadamias, I added almost 40 g extra fat to my recipe. The amount of butter in the recipe was 60 g, so I think I can start by reducing the butter and adding just 20 g butter instead of 60 g. Then, if the dough is too wet / not dry at all, up to 2 tbsp psyllium (and we’ll see next if coconut flour is needed to dry it any further, like those 5 g you mention 🙂
        I would also whip the egg whites, but I’m a bit hesitant, because for some (very) strange reason, I tried baking this cake whipping the 3 egg whites (that was before trying to bake the cake with macadamias), but it came out completely flat!! I’m still baffled by this and have absolutely no idea why that happened (I’ve whipped egg whites before and I don’t overmix with the dough, just gently fold in…).
        So what do you think about my plan?! 😉 Thankfully the gathering was postponed last minute for a few days, so I can rest from so much baking for a bit. Not so much, but I need the break 😉
        Thank you! ❤️ 🤗

      • Lys, you’re welcome! Your plan is sound. I recommend adding psyllium husk powder regardless, though you may only need half the amount once you lower the amount of butter. Low carb/gluten free baked goods tend to fall if there’s not enough gluten replacement and the original recipe doesn’t have much, if any. I also usually add a little bloomed gelatin to my egg whites before whipping them for bread dough to increase their stability. Taking this extra step is up to you. Best of luck!

  171. Lys says:

    Thank you very much, Vandy!
    I imagine that when you say 1 tsp baking powder, you meant 1 tsp baking soda? And related to this: I’ve always read that baking powder and baking soda are interchangeable (if you know the ratios and add acid to baking soda), but I think baking powder makes cakes and baked goods rise higher anyway, right?
    I do think this cake needs help rising, since macadamias are very fat, so dense/heavy cake. So I’m willing to try your trick for stabilising egg whites with gelatin 🙂 Do you mind telling me how to do this step by step and what amounts to use? I tried to find information or videos about this, but didn’t manage. When I’ve bloomed gelatin (I can’t even remember in what amounts!), the bloomed thing is a thick gel, so I can’t imagine adding that to egg whites (but maybe I’m wrong, of course!).
    Thank you for your culinary expertise with all these difficult flours and ingredients! 😉

    • I use both baking soda and baking powder in my low carb yeast bread. Besides the bicarbonate and acid, baking powder has the addition of a base to act as a buffer so the other ingredients don’t activate too soon during the baking process. You may have more success using both in this recipe as well. I would try 1 tsp baking powder along with the 1/2 tsp baking soda and lemon juice.

      To add gelatin to egg whites, first bloom 1 tsp powdered gelatin in 2 tsp of water in the bowl you plan to use for the egg whites. After 5 minutes, pour 2 tsp of boiling water over the gelatin and stir until melted. I do this all in my stand mixer. Allow the gelatin to cool down enough so it won’t cook the egg whites, about 5 minutes. Add egg whites and whip until soft peaks form. The resulting mixture should have a marshmallow consistency you can then fold into your bread dough. Because the gelatin is adding extra moisture, you may want to reduce the number of eggs in the recipe down to 2.
      I look forward to hearing your results after all the thought & effort put into these substitutions. Successful baking!

  172. Lys says:

    Fantastic! Thanks so much for the detailed explanation about stabilising whites with gelatin, I will follow it to the T! 😉
    Ah! I didn’t understand you, then, when it comes to baking powder. So yes, I’ll try using baking powder apart from the baking soda, as you suggest! I’m sure it’ll work better 😉
    Thank you so much! I’m so looking forward to this recipe working sooner than later!! I’ll definitely keep you posted. Have a wonderful day! 😊

  173. Valentina says:

    Hi, I am baking bread and I only have xanthan gum, although the recipe calls for psyllium husk. What is the correct ratio for substituting? Thank you in advance if you can help! 🙂

    • In gluten free baking, it’s usually a 1:1 substitution ratio; however, in low carb baking, psyllium husk powder is often used as a flour replacement and not just a gluten replacement. The safest way to use xanthan gum instead of psyllium husk powder is to a 1/2 tsp xanthan gum for every cup of gluten free/grain free flour. Happy baking!

  174. Lori Pool says:

    Hi, I found a recipe that I would like to try and it calls for oat fiber but I don’t eat oats and I read that you can substitute oat fiber for psyllium husk. Would the ratio be 1 to 1?

    • I usually use oat fiber as a substitute for coconut flour at a 1:1 ratio with fairly good results so you should be able to do the opposite. If you want to use psyllium husk in the recipe I would start with a 1:2 ratio (half the amount of psyllium husk powder to oat fiber). Oat fiber is an insoluble fiber without the gelling effect of the soluble fiber in psyllium husk so the texture would be greatly changed with a straight 1:1 substitution ratio. Good luck!

  175. V Sawicki says:

    Hi Crafty,

    I am puzzled. How can 1tbs of WHOLE flaxseed act the same as 1tbs of GROUND flaxseed for egg substitute?

    I have always used ground flaxseed when substituting for egg. However, I tbs of flaxseed is not at all the same as ground flaxseed.

    Also, is there a difference in thickening ability between whole chia seed versus ground chia seed?

    Thanks in advance for your reply,

  176. Hi,
    Im making a gluten free flour bread with sorghum flour. It needs me to add 1 tsp of xanthan gum what can i add instead?


    • Instead of xanthan gum as a gluten replacement, you can use 1 teaspoon per cup of gluten free flour of any of the following: psyllium husk powder, powdered gelatin, chia seed meal, or golden flaxseed meal.
      Happy Baking!

    • catcatherine says:

      Okay, i really can’t find any info on this. Inositol. Sweetener!

      I discovered purely by accident, as I had been taking as a nutritional supplement. Many possible benefits — one of the foremost being its antidepressant qualities — but including other listed benefits as diverse as cholesterol lowering to hair growth. So why aren’t we all ALL OVER this??

      It’s cheap, has a nice taste (half as sweet as sugar, I did manage to find — great, bc sugar is toooo sweet, imo), and actually has health benefits.


      (And thank you for this great resource — pleased to have just found — it’s really terrific!)

      • I take myo & D-chiro-inositol as a supplement to improve insulin resistance. I don’t recommend using inositol as a sweetener, though, as large amounts can cause hypoglycemia. There’s also some concern that excessive amounts can cause manic episodes in those with bipolar.

  177. Emma says:

    Thank you for this information. It is the best straight forward instruction that I have come across.

  178. Lynette Lois Young says:

    The pharmacy section advised me that Whole Psyllium Husk was what Metamucil is.

  179. Rebecca says:

    So helpful!

    I have a low carb pumpkin bread recipe that has almond flour (I am using some pumpkin seed flour 1:1 too), flaxseed (I am using some cranberry seed flour 1:1), coconut flour, and 2 tbsp psyllium husk powder. It’s a great recipe but didn’t sit well with me. I am thinking if I nix the psyllium i should be able to handle it. I have arrowroot, oat fiber, xanthum gum, along with all the items above. Can you recommend one of these to replace the psyllium husk powder, and in what amount, while maintaining similar texture? Thank you!

    • I have issues with psyllium husk powder, too, and usually replace it with golden flaxseed meal at a 1:1 ratio. You can also try the oat fiber at a 1:1 ratio or use 1/2 tsp of xanthan gum per each cup of flour(s). Happy Baking!

  180. Tasmeya says:

    Hi, thanks for this…in South Africa, Oat Fibre is not readily available. Can i use psyllium husk in place of oat fibre for low carb bread? Or which would be the best substitute?

  181. Melissa says:

    Why wouldn’t you use arrowroot starch with dairy products?
    I would read through the comments- but there are way too many.

    Thank you

  182. Tara Carella says:

    Hi I am trying to convert whole chia seeds to ground.. are the 1:1? I have a recipe that calls for 1/2cup of whole chia seeds, but I prefer to use milled.. I don’t know how to convert.. how much ground would i need? thanks!

  183. If you’re grinding your own seeds, then grind a 1/2 cup and use all of it. If you’re using pre-ground chia seed meal, then use a little more than 1/2 cup. I would probably use 1/2 cup + 3 tablespoons just to save on extra measuring spoons.

  184. Yvonne Peterson says:

    I have a keto book that uses arrowroot powder I want to switch it over to xanthium gum or gar Gar gum how would I do the ratio, start from one cup

  185. Judy says:

    What’s the ratio substituting psyllium husk powder for glucomannan? Or, for xanthan gum in place of glucomannan? Also, which would be the better substitute in a donut recipe?

    • Great question! For psyllium husk powder, use 1/2 to 3/4 tsp per cup of gluten free/low carb flour. The substitution ratio for xanthan gum and glucomannan is usually 1:1. I haven’t used glucomannan and can’t tolerate psyllium, so I would use xanthan gum. Happy Baking!

  186. Donna Hicks says:

    Could you please tell me how much psyllium husk to use instead oat fiber . Oat fiber calls for 3/4cup

    • I don’t recommend substituting psyllium husk for oat fiber as they have very different properties. Psyllium husk is a soluble fiber that forms a gel much like chia and flax seeds to improve the texture of baked goods whereas oat fiber is mostly an insoluble fiber and is used as a flour replacement. I have used whey protein power, lupin flour, and almond flour as straight substitutes for oat fiber. Potato fiber can also be used as a substitute. If you still want to use psyllium husk powder in the recipe, you can combine 1/2 cup + 2 Tbsp of any of the options above with 2 Tbsp psyllium husk powder. Happy Baking!

      • Rebecca says:

        May I ask where you have been able to find potato fiber? I have never been able to find it and I have searched online. I can see that it is sold in Europe but haven’t seen anywhere in the U.S.

      • I haven’t looked for it since I’m sensitive to potatoes. I do see it listed as an ingredient in commercially made items marketed as low carb and keto, though.

  187. Marie says:

    How do I substitute 1 cup potatoe starch for arrowroot starch replacement??

  188. bree says:

    my recipe calls for 1/2 cup of egg white protein powder how much xanthan gum would i use?

    • Are you adding xanthan gum in addition to egg white protein powder or as a substitution for it? Protein powders are usually included in recipes as a flour substitute not as a binding agent.

  189. Pat says:

    I have a recipe that calls for 1/2 cup of sunflower seeds. Can I substitute flaxseed? And what is the ratio?

    • Does the recipe call for whole seeds or ground? Either way, flaxseeds will significantly change the texture of the recipe due to their gelling properties. You can use 1/2 cup chopped nuts (almonds, pecans, walnuts, etc.) or lightly chopped pepitas (hulled pumpkin seeds) in place of sunflower seeds.

  190. smdowell says:

    I have a bread recipe that calls for 4tbl pysillium husk or 2tbl husk powder. I would like to use hemp hearts instead. What ratio would I use or would you not recommend the hemp hearts?

  191. Sharon Stai says:

    How much cornstarch in place of AP flour?

  192. Karla Joy says:

    Thank you, Vandy! This is great 🙂

  193. Stefanos says:

    Hi! I know this is an old post but the post and all your answers in the comments section have been super helpful. Thank you! I am making a lupin flour bread that is low carb. It calls for 1/2 cup of oat fiber, 2/3 cup of lupin flour and 1 1/2 cups of vital wheat gluten. I am trying to make the recipe sans gluten. It already calls for 2 eggs and 3/4 tsp xantham gum and has yeast in it for rising. Do you have a suggestion for what I could replace all that wheat gluten with? I have flax, chia, psyllium, xantham and eggs of course. Cheers!

    • Honestly, I’d look for another recipe that doesn’t have vital wheat gluten as the main ingredient. However, vital wheat gluten is a protein so you can try substituting unflavored whey protein powder for it at a 1:1 ratio, increasing xanthan gum to 2 tsp, and adding 1 Tbs unflavored gelatin to the dry ingredients. The xanthan gum and gelatin will increase the elasticity of the dough to mimic the wheat gluten more closely, though the bread may be more dry and crumbly than the original once baked. The only way to know for sure is to experiment with the ingredients. Good luck!

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